TOP oloscience's Videos 19 videos
2:39
Hugh Everett III (Maryland, 11 novembre 1930 McLean, 19 luglio 1982) è stato un fisico statunitense attivo principalmente all'Università di Princeton. È stato celebre tra i fisici per aver formulato per primo nel 1957 l'interpretazione a molti mondi della meccanica quantistica. Secondo questa teoria, quando si effettua una misurazione quantistica e si osserva una funzione d'onda, questa non diventa l'unica reale (come si pensava precedentemente) ma assumono esistenza anche tutte le misure che non sono state trovate, generando ognuna un altro universo. Everett abbandonò gli studi in fisica subito dopo aver completato la tesi di dottorato, scoraggiato dallo scarso interesse degli altri fisici verso queste sue teorie. Ha sviluppato notevolmente l'impiego dei moltiplicatori di Lagrange in ricerca operativa, che poi egli stesso per conto dell'IDA ha utilizzato, divenendo così pluri-milionario. Sposò Nancy Gore (poi divenuta Nancy Everett), con la quale ebbe due figli, Mark Oliver Everett e Elizabeth Everett. Everett morì d'infarto a 51 anni, nel 1982, l'anno in cui un'équipe di ricerca dell'Università di Parigi, diretta dal fisico Alain Aspect ha scoperto che, sottoponendo a determinate condizioni delle particelle subatomiche, come gli elettroni, esse sono capaci di comunicare istantaneamente una con l'altra indipendentemente dalla distanza che le separa, sia che si tratti di 10 metri o di 10 miliardi di chilometri. Il figlio di Hugh Everett III, Mark Oliver Everett (detto Mr. E) è il frontman della band americana Eels.
  • 11 Aug 2009
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2:31
Si presume che se esso ha una massa compresa tra i 114 e i 185 GeV (scartando il range tra i 160 e i 170 GeV),lo si troverà di certo nel Large Hadron Collider (LHC) del CERN. Di fatto,una luminosità integrata di soli 10^4 picobarn inversi sarà sufficiente per trovare il bosone di Higgs;ciò significa che basterà una luminosità molto più modesta di quella prevista dai costruttori dell'LHC. I progetti inerenti all'LHC del CERN,mirano ad aumentare le energie di collisione fino a raggiungere la fascia dei Tera elettron Volt (10^12 eV),alla ricerca di prove della supersimmetria e dell'ormai "famigerato" bosone di Higgs (tutte componenti del modello standard della fisica delle particelle elementari). Secondo J.D.Barrow comunque,anche le energie che ci si aspetta di raggiungere all'LHC sono ancora al di sotto di un fattore di circa un milione di miliardi per raggiungere le energie necessarie per controllare sperimentalmente lo schema di una quadruplice unificazione, proposto da una "Teoria del Tutto".Sul sito ufficiale del "Progetto ATLAS" ( *******atlas.ch/ ),è possibile vedere un filmato realizzato dall'INFN in cui vengono spiegati (a grandi linee), gli obiettivi principali di tale progetto.Il filmato si trova a questo link: *******www.lnf.infn.it/media/video/at... (la seconda metà del filmato è quella più interessante). A mio avviso,se il bosone di Higgs non verrà identificato neppure nei prossimi esperimenti all'ATLAS (l'apparato all'interno dell'LHC del CERN),ciò non creerà alcun imbarazzo per i fisici che da diversi decenni ormai stanno cercando di rilevarlo.È vero che alcuni esperimenti compiuti nel corso dell'ultimo decennio, hanno cominciato a limitare notevolmente lo spazio parametrico per questa particella, ma finorà non è mai emerso nessun risultato significativo.A ben vedere,la teoria che descrive tale particella scalare con spin nullo (ovvero il bosone di Higgs),ad un livello assai profondo soffre di gravi problemi formali.Uno di questi (...forse il peggiore),è che le particelle scalari sono notoriamente sensibili alla nuova fisica che potrebbe subentrare a scale di energia molto alte (come quelle che verranno utilizzate nel progetto ATLAS,rimanendo nello specifico).Se le forze: forte,debole ed elettromagnetica sono unificate ad una certa scala-livello di energia,e il bosone di Higgs diventa parte di una struttura maggiore, diventa virtualmente impossibile mantenere "leggera" la particella scalare quando le particelle ad essa affini diventano "pesanti".Nel modello standard non è possibile preservare la gerarchia delle scale in alcun modo naturale.Tutto comunque si verrebbe a risolvere con l'introduzione,a tal punto,del concetto di supersimmetria. Ogni bosone e ogni fermione in una coppia supersimmetrica danno lo stesso contributo alla massa efficace del bosone di Higgs,ma il loro contributo è di segno opposto.In ultima analisi quindi,gli effetti di tutte le particelle virtuali (dei fermioni e dei bosoni),si annullano facendo sì che la massa del bosone di Higgs non risenta dell'influenza della fisica a scale di energia più alte.Rimane comunque a questo punto un problema di fondo:Se le particelle ordinarie vengono divise in massa dalle loro partner supersimmetriche,viene a mancare il meccanismo con cui le une e le altre si annullano nel calcolo degli effetti delle particelle virtuali sulla massa di Higgs.Senza addentrarmi in ulteriori dettagli tecnici,tirando le somme,è possibile giungere all'idea che la scala di energia a cui i partner supersimmetrici della materia ordinaria dovrebbero esistere,non può essere molto più alta della scala della rottura di simmetria dell'interazione debole.Con i futuri esperimenti al CERN,sarà quindi possibile stabilire una volta per sempre, la fondatezza o meno del modello supersimmetrico,ipotizzato già agli inizi degli anni '70. Fausto Intilla - WWW.OLOSCIENCE.COM
  • 11 Aug 2009
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3:14
Android sensitive to Sensory Stimuli Tactile (Free download of my books on: WWW.OLOSCIENCE.COM)
  • 3 Nov 2008
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8:00
Die Marsoberfläche, mit seinen Kohlendioxid-Atmosphäre und durchschnittlich -63 ° C Temperatur, ist nicht der ideale Ort für einen Spaziergang. Allerdings ist eine neue Generation von Beinen Roboter greift die ersten Schritte in Richtung auf eine aktive Rolle bei der weiteren Erforschung des Weltraums. Nach Jahren der Forschung, Beinen Systeme erweisen sich eine bessere Mobilität in schwierigem Gelände als Geräte mit Rädern. Verschiedene Prototypen gebaut werden zur Optimierung der Interaktion mit außerirdischen Umgebungen. Bionik ist eine wissenschaftliche Zweig, der versucht, die Natur zu imitieren. Das Ergebnis ist eine von acht Beinen Roboter namens Scorpion, basierend auf dem Fuß Muster der realen Skorpione. Es ist ein Prototyp getestet werden, indem der DFKI (Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz) der Universität Bremen in Deutschland. Es wird erwartet, dass in der Lage sein, klettern die Mars-Eisen-Oxid Dünen auf 1,2 km / h als es dauert Rock-Proben. Der Skorpion ist mit 60 Sensoren und 24 unabhängigen Motoren Artikulation der Gelenke, so dass der Roboter zur Anpassung an die verschiedenen Hindernisse und Gelände. Seine Kameras und Sensoren analysieren die Umgebung, beim Versenden TV-Bilder 70 Millionen km zur Erde. Aramis ist ein Roboter, der selbstständig handeln können. Zwei ultra-sound-Sensoren und einem Laser-Scanner Maßnahme die erforderliche Entfernung zu ermitteln, ob ein Kurs sicher ist oder nicht. Ein solcher Roboter könnte gegen raue und steile Schluchten und Krater wie auf dem Mars und dem Mond. RaumfahrtRobotik gilt in vielen anderen Bereichen. Die Anforderungen an die Elektronik-und Hardware in die kompromisslose Bedingungen des Raumes führen zu sehr fortgeschrittene Entwicklungen. Alle verwendeten Materialien müssen nicht degradieren, alle Funktionen sind für die Arbeit in feindlichen Umgebungen. Die Anforderungen auf der Erde sind dann leicht erfüllt werden und die Technologie aus diesem Bereich findet viele Verwendungen (z. B. im Unterwasser-oder Sicherheits-Anwendungen). Unterstützt durch das europäische Projekt Hector, der DFKI ist die Anpassung der Raumfahrttechnologie für den Einsatz von Such-und Rettungsmannschaften. Forscher und Studenten der Abteilung Mecatronics am Politecnico di Torino in Italien haben ähnliche Ziele, die in der DFKI. Sie glauben, ein Multi-legged Gerät mit starren Rahmen ist der beste Ansatz zum Tragen schwerer Lasten über eine grobe Gelände. Walkie 6,4 ist eine semi-autonome Roboter noch in der Entwicklung. Jeder der sechs Sinne Füße den Boden unter diesem Wert liegen und der Roboter kann entscheiden, ob sie können unter Wahrung der Stabilität. Wenn sich die Situation zu gefährlich wird, stoppt der Roboter und fordert für den menschlichen Bestellungen. Es ist zu hoffen, dass Walkie 6,4 könnte ein Tag, alle seine Entscheidungen allein. Diese Roboter sind für jede Mond oder Mars Exploration. Für den Zugriff auf schwierigen Bereichen (zum Beispiel, vulkanische Lava Tunnel, wo die Oberfläche ist sehr unregelmäßig)-Geräte mit hoher Mobilität sind unerlässlich. Die Institute in Bremen und Turin Plan zu teilen, ihr Wissen zu beschleunigen, weitere Fortschritte im Bereich des Designs. Sie teilen sich den Traum des Versendens einer europäischen Laufroboter in den Raum innerhalb des nächsten Jahrzehnts.
  • 9 Feb 2009
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8:00
Марсианской поверхности, с ее углекислого газа атмосферы и в среднем -63 ° C температура, не является идеальным местом для прогулок. Тем не менее, новое поколение роботов legged предпринимает первые шаги в направлении активного участия в дальнейших космических исследований. После многих лет исследований, legged систем оказываются лучше мобильности на сложный рельеф, чем устройства с колесами. Различные прототипы, строится для оптимизации взаимодействия с экстра-земных условиях. Biomimetics является научной отрасли, которая пытается имитировать характер. Результат-восемь legged робота называется Скорпион, основанный на ходьба моделей реальных скорпионами. Это прототип проходит проверку на DFKI (немецкий научно-исследовательский центр по искусственному интеллекту) в Университете Бремена в Германии. Ожидается, что он будет способен восхождение Марса-оксид железа дюн на 1,2 км / ч, как он принимает рок-образцам. Скорпион оснащен датчиками 60 и 24 независимых моторов формирования суставов, что позволяет роботу адаптироваться к различным препятствия и местности. Ее камер и датчиков, анализировать окружение, в то время как ТВ-отправка фотографий 70 млн км от Земли. Aramis это робот, который может действовать автономно. Два ультра-звук датчиков и лазерного сканера требуется мера расстояния, чтобы определить курс является безопасным или нет. Такой робот может решить грубый и крутым ущельям и кратеров, подобных тем, на Марсе и Луне. Космической робототехники применима во многих других областях. Требования по электронике и аппаратного обеспечения в условиях бескомпромиссной пространстве ведут к весьма передовых разработок. Все материалы, используемые не должны ухудшать; все функции для работы в неблагоприятных условиях. Стандартов, предусмотренных на Земле, которые затем легко встретились и технологии из этой области является поиск многих видов использования (например, в области подводной безопасности или приложений). При поддержке европейского проекта Гектор, DFKI адаптируется космических технологий для использования в поисково-спасательных групп. Ученые и студенты факультета в Mecatronics Политехнического ди Торино в Италии, имеют аналогичные цели для тех, кто находится DFKI. Они считают, многолетних legged устройство с жесткой рамы является наилучшим подходом для перевозки тяжелых грузов более чем грубый рельеф. 6,4 рации является полуавтономных роботов все еще находится в стадии разработки. Каждая из его шести футов смыслах земли под ним, и робот может решить, будет ли он может перейти при сохранении стабильности. Если ситуация становится слишком опасной, робот останавливается и спрашивает человека заказов. Можно надеяться, что Walkie 6,4 могло бы один день сделать все свои решения в одиночку. Эти роботы имеют жизненно важное значение для любого Марс или Луну разведке. Чтобы войти в сложных областях (например, вулканической лавы туннелях, где поверхность внутри очень нерегулярно) устройств с высокой мобильностью, имеют важнейшее значение. Институтах и в Бремена Турине планируем поделиться своими знаниями в целях ускорения дальнейших достижений в области дизайна. Они разделяют мечту о направлении европейской робота в космос в течение следующего десятилетия.
  • 25 Jun 2008
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1:03
The Space Robotics Laboratory, led by Professor Yoshida, is dedicated to the research and development of the robotic systems for space science and exploration missions. The lab has contributed to the Engineering Test Satellite-VII (launched in 1997 for orbital robotics experiments) and "Hayabusa" asteroid sample-return probe (launched in 2003 and expected to return in 2010). Today one of our focuses is put on the mechanics and control of lunar exploration rovers. Technologies for remote planetary exploration (such as mapping and localization in the unstructured environment, rough terrain mobility, and teleoperation with time delay) can also be applied to the robots for search and rescue missions. Tohoku University - Japan
  • 18 Jun 2008
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0:15
"Why can snakes move ahead on without legs?" From this problem, we started research of snake biomechanisms, which resulted in the development of "Snake Robots". Snake Robots have many possible applications, even though the structures are simple. Hirose Fukushima Robotics Lab
  • 17 Jun 2008
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1:09
"Why can snakes move ahead on without legs?" From this problem, we started research of snake biomechanisms, which resulted in the "Why can snakes move ahead on without legs?" From this problem, we started research of snake biomechanisms, which resulted in the development of "Snake Robots". Snake Robots have many possible applications, even though the structures are simple. Hirose Fukushima Robotics Lab
  • 15 Jun 2008
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3:28
Clinton Richard Dawkins (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer. He holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. Dawkins first came to prominence with his 1976 book The Selfish Gene, which popularised the gene-centered view of evolution and introduced the term meme, helping found the field of memetics. In 1982, he made a widely cited contribution to the science of evolution with the theory, presented in his book The Extended Phenotype, that phenotypic effects are not limited to an organism's body but can stretch far into the environment, including into the bodies of other organisms. He has since written several best-selling popular books, and has appeared in a number of television and radio programmes concerning evolutionary biology, creationism, intelligent design, and religion. In addition to his biological work, Dawkins is well-known for his views on religion. He is an outspoken antireligionist and atheist; a secular humanist, sceptic, scientific rationalist, and a supporter of the Brights movement. He is a prominent critic of creationism and intelligent design. In his 2006 book The God Delusion, Dawkins contends that a supernatural creator almost certainly does not exist and that religious faith qualifies as a delusion, which he defines as a persistent false belief held in the face of strong contradictory evidence. As of November 2007, the book had sold more than 1.5 million copies in English and had been translated into 31 other languages, making it his most popular to date.
  • 21 Mar 2010
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1:20
Tom is a leading conceptualist in alternate energy technology, mind/matter interaction, EM bioeffects, paranormal phenomena, parapsychology, psychotronics, Tesla technology, and unified field theory concepts. He is the leading advocate of scalar potential electromagnetics, and has worked with several inventors involved in alternate energy devices and scalar electromagnetic system prototypes. He advanced the first force-free redefinition of mass as well as an electromagnetic mechanism that generates the flow of time, and has proposed a testable resolution of the century-old debate over the way in which energy flows in electrical circuits. He defined charge q as a coupled system of two components, and not unitary at all. He advanced a mechanism for electromagnetically producing a vacuum engine, whereby the vacuum itself is utilized to energetically shape and manipulate matter and energy. In August 1991 Sweet (now deceased) and Bearden reported in the hardcore technical literature Sweet's successful extraction of electromagnetic power (500 watts) from the vacuum, and the world's first highly successful antigravity experiment where the weight of a 6-pound device was reduced by 90 percent on the laboratory bench. Tom recently proposed and released worldwide a simple, novel mechanism for extracting free electrical energy from the vacuum and powering external loads. He and his CTEC colleagues are rapidly pioneering a formal theory of such overunity electrical machines. Four patents have been filed to date and two more are in progress. He proposed a new mechanism and model for the interaction of EM fields and radiation with biological systems - the fundamental model used by EM bioeffects researchers is inadequate and yields contradictory experiments and studies, difficult or impossible replicability, and almost no fundamental causative mechanisms. Tom discovered and published a fundamental mechanism for generating a quantum potential, which produces action-at-a-distance as well as multiply connected spacetime. Utilizing personal and species quantum potentials, he has redefined cancer in a new light and advanced a primary long-term, cumulative causative mechanism for the disease.
  • 11 Oct 2008
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2:49
Erich Fromm (* 23. März 1900 in Frankfurt am Main; † 18. März 1980 in Muralto, Tessin) war ein deutsch-amerikanischer Psychoanalytiker, Philosoph und Sozialpsychologe. Erich Fromm stammte aus einer streng religiösen jüdischen Familie, aus der bereits zahlreiche Rabbiner hervorgegangen waren. Auch er wollte ursprünglich diese Laufbahn einschlagen. In Frankfurt aufgewachsen, studierte er aber dort zunächst Jura, wechselte dann zum Soziologiestudium nach Heidelberg und promovierte dort 1922 bei Alfred Weber über Das jüdische Gesetz. Bis 1925 nahm er außerdem Talmudunterricht bei Rabbi Rabinkow. 1926 heiratete er die Psychoanalytikerin Frieda Reichmann. Ende der 1920er Jahre begann Fromm am Berliner Psychoanalytischen Institut bei einem nichtärztlichen Freud-Schüler, dem Juristen Hanns Sachs, eine Ausbildung zum Psychoanalytiker. In dieser Zeit gaben er und seine Frau ihre orthodox-jüdische Lebensweise auf. Ab 1929 praktizierte Fromm, da er kein Mediziner war, als sogenannter Laienanalytiker in Berlin. Seit 1930 war er für das Frankfurter Institut für Sozialforschung als Leiter der Sozialpsychologischen Abteilung tätig. Zugleich gehörte er dem Berliner Zirkel marxistischer Psychoanalytiker um Wilhelm Reich und Otto Fenichel an und trug mit einigen Publikationen zur Theoriebildung des Freudomarxismus bei. 1931 trennte er sich von Frieda Reichmann, blieb ihr jedoch weiterhin freundschaftlich verbunden (Scheidung erst 1942). Im Mai 1934 folgte er dem Institut für Sozialforschung in die Emigration in die Vereinigten Staaten. Ende 1939 kam es nach verschiedenen Konflikten zu einer Trennung vom Institut für Sozialforschung, nachdem er über viele Jahre einer der wichtigsten Mitarbeiter gewesen war. Er wurde am 25. Mai 1940 US-amerikanischer Staatsbürger. 1944 heiratete er die deutsch-jüdische Emigrantin Henny Gurland. Im Jahr 1950 übersiedelte er nach Mexiko-Stadt und lehrte an der Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). Nachdem seine Frau Henny 1952 überraschend gestorben war, heiratete er 1953 die US-Amerikanerin Annis Freeman. Ab 1957 beteiligte er sich an der US-amerikanischen Friedensbewegung. Er selbst hat immer einen humanistischen, demokratischen Sozialismus vertreten. 1965 wurde Fromm emeritiert; 1974 nahm er seinen Wohnsitz in Muralto (Tessin) ein. Seine Beiträge zur Psychoanalyse, zur Religionspsychologie und zur Gesellschaftskritik haben ihn als einflussreichen Denker des 20. Jahrhunderts etabliert, auch wenn er in der akademischen Welt oft unterschätzt wurde. Viele seiner Bücher wurden zu Bestsellern; seine Gedanken wurden auch außerhalb der Fachwelt breit diskutiert. In den Jahren 1966, 1977 und 1978 erlitt er jeweils einen Herzinfarkt. Fromm starb am 18. März 1980, infolge eines weiteren Herzinfarkts, in Locarno (Schweiz), wenige Tage vor dem Erscheinen der 10-bändigen Gesamtausgabe seiner Werke. Er wurde in Bellinzona (Schweiz) eingeäschert. 1979 wurde Fromm mit dem Nelly-Sachs-Preis ausgezeichnet, im Jahr 1981 wurde ihm posthum die Goetheplakette der Stadt Frankfurt am Main verliehen. Der literarische Rechte- und Nachlassverwalter Fromms ist der Psychoanalytiker Rainer Funk, der bei Fromm über Sozialpsychologie und Ethik promoviert hat und sein letzter Assistent war. Funk hat im Herbst 2005 im Fromm Forum einen Aufsatz veröffentlicht mit dem Titel "Erleben von Ohnmacht im Dritten Reich", Das Schicksal der jüdischen Verwandtschaft Erich Fromms aufgezeigt an Dokumenten.
  • 29 Mar 2008
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5:01
Janine Jansen (born in 1978 in Soest) is a Dutch violinist. Jansen began to study the violin at age 6. She studied with Coosje Wijzenbeek, Philipp Hirshhorn, and Boris Belkin. Her father and brother are also musicians. Jansen appeared as soloist with the National Youth Orchestra of Scotland in 2001, where she performed the Brahms Violin Concerto. She opened the BBC Proms in 2005. When performing live, she is sometimes rather adventurous with her performance, with emphasis on emotional accents more than on precision or adherence to status quo. She has eschewed tradition by recording with only 5 solo strings rather than an orchestra, including her brother as cellist and father playing continuo. In live concerts, she has received standing ovations from enthusiastic audiences, such as in the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra 2006 concert in Berlin's Waldbühne Amphitheater, with a full attendance of 25,000, and in Los Angeles at the Walt Disney Concert Hall with the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra in 2008 to a sold out audience. Jansen currently uses the 1727 Stradivari "Barrere" violin, on extended loan by the Stradivari Society of Chicago. She has begun her own chamber music festival in Utrecht. Jansen and her former boyfriend, the violinist Julian Rachlin, have collaborated in chamber music performances. As of January 2006, she has recorded two mainstream CDs (one also a hybrid SACD). The first is a collection of encore pieces, conducted by Barry Wordsworth, the second a chamber ensemble rendition of Vivaldi's Four Seasons. In particular, her Vivaldi recording has seen great success in terms of downloading sales. She has recorded the Tchaikovsky Concerto with the Cleveland Orchestra and Vladimir Ashkenazy conducting. In October 2006, she released her third album. This CD features the Mendelssohn and Bruch Violin Concertos, along with the Bruch Romance for Viola, with conductor Riccardo Chailly and the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra. In 2008, she recorded a live session for the itunes music store consisting of Bach's Trio Sonata in G Major and Sonata for Violin and Harpsichord No. 6 In G Major.
  • 16 Jul 2008
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0:05
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST; also known colloquially as "the Hubble" or just "Hubble") is a space telescope that was carried into orbit around the Earth by the Space Shuttle Discovery in April 1990. It is named for the American astronomer Edwin Hubble. Hubble's position outside the Earth's atmosphere allows it to take extremely sharp images and, although not the first space telescope to be deployed, Hubble has become one of the most important instruments in the history of astronomy. Hubble's Ultra Deep Field image, for instance, is the most detailed visible-light image of the universe's most distant objects ever made. Many observations made using the telescope have led to breakthroughs in astrophysics. The construction and launch of the Hubble was beset by delays and budget problems. Then, soon after its 1990 launch, it was found that the main mirror suffered from spherical aberration due to faulty quality control during its manufacturing, severely compromising the telescope's capabilities. However, after a servicing mission in 1993, the telescope was restored to its intended quality and became a vital research tool as well as a public relations boon for astronomy. The HST is part of NASA's Great Observatories series, with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Spitzer Space Telescope.[3] Hubble is a collaboration between NASA and the European Space Agency. The Hubble is the only telescope ever designed to be serviced in space by astronauts. To date, there have been four servicing missions, with a fifth and final mission planned for September 2008. Servicing Mission 1 took place in December 1993 when Hubble's imaging flaw was corrected. Servicing Mission 2 occurred in February 1997 when two new instruments were installed. Servicing Mission 3 was split into two distinct missions: SM3A occurred in December 1999 when urgently needed repairs were made to Hubble; and then SM3B followed in March 2002 when the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) was installed. Since SM3B, the Hubble has lost use of two major science instruments and is operating with viewing restrictions because of rate-sensing gyroscope failures. There are six gyroscopes onboard Hubble and three are normally used for observing. However, after further failures, and in order to conserve lifetime, a decision was taken in August 2005 to switch off one of the functioning gyroscopes and operate Hubble using only 2 gyros in combination with the Fine Guidance Sensors. This mode retains the excellent image quality of Hubble, and provides a redundancy should it be needed. Further redundancy is available now that an operational mode requiring only one gyro has been developed and tested. Six new gyroscopes are planned to be installed in SM4. The two instruments that have failed are the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) which stopped working in August 2004 and the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) which ceased operations in January 2007 (operations were later restored for its little used far-ultraviolet mode). Currently (mid-2007) Hubble observations are being taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). Astrometry is being carried out with the Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS). Without a reboost to increase the diameter of its orbit, drag will cause Hubble to re-enter the Earth's atmosphere sometime after 2010. Following the 2003 Columbia Space Shuttle disaster, the fifth servicing mission (SM4), initially planned for 2004, was canceled on safety grounds. NASA determined that a manned mission would be too dangerous, due to a lack of access to the International Space Station (ISS), which can serve as a safe haven for an astronaut crew. The Shuttle cannot travel between the Hubble and ISS orbits. The organization later reconsidered this position, and, on October 31, 2006, NASA administrator Mike Griffin gave the green light for a final Hubble servicing mission to be flown by Atlantis. The mission is now planned for August 2008.[4][5] As a safety precaution, NASA will have the orbiter Endeavour standing by at Launch Complex 39B to provide rescue in the event of an emergency. The planned repairs to the Hubble will allow the telescope to function until at least 2013, when its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), is due to be launched. The JWST will be far superior to Hubble for many astronomical research programs, but will only observe in infrared, so it will not replace Hubble's ability to observe in the visible and ultraviolet parts of the spectrum.
  • 10 May 2009
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4:01
Clinton Richard Dawkins (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer. He holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. Dawkins first came to prominence with his 1976 book The Selfish Gene, which popularised the gene-centered view of evolution and introduced the term meme, helping found the field of memetics. In 1982, he made a widely cited contribution to the science of evolution with the theory, presented in his book The Extended Phenotype, that phenotypic effects are not limited to an organism's body but can stretch far into the environment, including into the bodies of other organisms. He has since written several best-selling popular books, and has appeared in a number of television and radio programmes concerning evolutionary biology, creationism, intelligent design, and religion. In addition to his biological work, Dawkins is well-known for his views on religion. He is an outspoken antireligionist and atheist; a secular humanist, sceptic, scientific rationalist, and a supporter of the Brights movement. He is a prominent critic of creationism and intelligent design. In his 2006 book The God Delusion, Dawkins contends that a supernatural creator almost certainly does not exist and that religious faith qualifies as a delusion, which he defines as a persistent false belief held in the face of strong contradictory evidence. As of November 2007, the book had sold more than 1.5 million copies in English and had been translated into 31 other languages, making it his most popular to date.
  • 27 Mar 2008
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Stanislav Grof (born July 1, 1931 in Prague, Czechoslovakia) is one of the founders of the field of transpersonal psychology and a pioneering researcher into the use of altered states of consciousness for purposes of healing, growth, and insight. Grof received the VISION 97 award granted by the Foundation of Dagmar and Vaclav Havel in Prague on October 5, 2007. Grof is known in particular for his early studies of LSD and its effects on the psyche—the field of psychedelic psychotherapy. He constructed a theoretical framework for pre- and perinatal psychology and transpersonal psychology in which LSD trips and other powerfully emotional experiences were mapped onto one's early fetal and neonatal experiences. Over time, this theory developed into an in-depth "cartography" of the deep human psyche. Following the legal suppression of LSD use in the late 1960s, Grof went on to discover that many of these states of mind could be explored without drugs and instead by using certain breathing techniques in a supportive environment. He continues this work today under the title "Holotropic Breathwork". Grof received his M.D. from Charles University in Prague in 1957, and then completed his Ph.D. in Medicine at the Czechoslovakian Academy of Sciences in 1965, training as a Freudian psychoanalyst at this time. In 1967, he was invited as an Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, United States, and went on to become Chief of Psychiatric Research at the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center where he worked with Walter Pahnke and Bill Richards among others. In 1973, Dr. Grof was invited to the Esalen Institute in Big Sur, California, and lived there until 1987 as a scholar-in-residence, developing his ideas. Being the founding president of the International Transpersonal Association (ITA) (founded in 1977), he went on to become distinguished adjunct faculty member of the Department of Philosophy, Cosmology, and Consciousness at the California Institute of Integral Studies, a position he remains in today.
  • 14 Dec 2008
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A pulse of light injected into a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) can be slowed to a tiny fraction of the speed of light in a vacuum. In the movie, the top animation shows how the information in a pulse is compressed when it enters a BEC (contained inside the blue arc), and then returned to it's original form as it exits. In the movie, the lower animation illustrates a race between a light pulse that passes through a cigar-shaped BEC blob and a light pulse traveling in free space, demonstrating how light can be controlled with BECs. Techniques that slow light could potentially lead to devices that manipulate light in the same way that microelectronic chips and computers manipulate electrical signals and data. Light comes in units of energy called photons which have no mass, only energy and momentum. Modern physics tells us that massless particles must move at the speed c in a vacuum. It's possible to slow light down by making it interact with matter and, in a sense, converting photons to something with mass. That's one way to understand what Lene Hau and colleagues at the Rowland Institute of Science did in 1999 when they slowed light to 17 miles per hour in a Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC) made of ultracold sodium atoms. The BEC is usually opaque, but the researchers made the material transparent by exposing it to a specific arrangement of laser beams. The lasers allowed incoming photons to combine with atoms to form a hybrid particle known as a polariton. Because polaritons get mass from the atoms, they move slower than c. In a BEC, many atoms condense to form one large, super atom. The super atoms are very heavy, and so are the polaritons formed with the incoming photons, and as a result they move much slower than c. In 2001, Ron Walsworth, Mikhail Lukin and colleagues at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics formed slow moving polaritons in a vapor of rubidium atoms, in much the same way that Hau slowed light in a BEC. By turning down the lasers that made the vapor transparent, the researchers gradually reduced the portion of the polaritons that were made of photons and increased the portion made of atoms, and the light was effectively stopped and stored in the vapor. By turning the lasers back up, the researchers converted the polaritons back into photons, which then resumed their speed-of-light travel. At about the same time that this work was being done, Hau's group stopped light in a BEC. Among other things, stopping light might provide a way to store data in future optical computers, or lead to new ways to manipulate light.
  • 26 Dec 2008
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Masaru Emoto (江本勝, Emoto Masaru, b. July 22, 1943, Yokohama, Japan) is an author known for his controversial claim that if human thoughts are directed at water before it is frozen, images of the resulting water crystals will be beautiful or ugly depending upon whether the thoughts were positive or negative. Emoto claims this can be achieved through prayer, music or by attaching written words to a container of water. Since 1999 Emoto has published several volumes of a work titled Messages from Water, which contains photographs of water crystals next to essays and "words of intent". Emoto's water crystal experiments consist of exposing water in glasses to different words, pictures, or music, and then freezing and examining the aesthetics of the resulting crystals with microscopic photography. Emoto's work does adhere to the long established practices and procedures of the scientific method, such as double blind controls, which have been developed to reduce the effect of statistical anomalies and experimenter bias. Emoto states, "Our efforts include the use of blinds to remove the possibility of change from the researchers' thoughts. We do this because we don't want the thought that the water being told "Thank you" will produce a more beautiful crystal than that being told "You fool" to have an impact on the results. We label the sample dishes with letters of the alphabet, and don't reveal which water is which until after the results have been seen." Commentators have criticized Emoto for insufficient experimental controls, and for not sharing enough details of his approach with the scientific community. In addition, Emoto has been criticized for designing his experiments in ways that leave them open to human error influencing his findings. In the day-to-day work of his group, the creativity of the photographers rather than the rigor of the experiment is an explicit policy of Emoto. Emoto freely acknowledges that he is not a scientist,and that photographers are instructed to select the most pleasing photographs. In 2006, Emoto published a paper together with Dean Radin and others in the peer-reviewed Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, in which they claim to have proven in a double blind test that approximately 2000 people in Tokyo could increase the aesthetic appeal of water stored in a room in California, compared to water in another room, solely through their positive intentions. James Randi, founder of the James Randi Educational Foundation, has publicly offered Emoto one million dollars if his results can be reproduced in a double-blind study. Randi has also stated that he does not expect to ever have to pay the million dollars.
  • 26 Mar 2008
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