The Universe is pure TECH disguised within natural forces
The Universe is pure technology embedded in Mother Nature
The Universe is actually pure technology
The Universe is pure technology that is disguised as natural phenomena
The Universe is technology, not cotton candy
The Universe is pure technology and so are you
A pulse of light injected into a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) can be slowed to a tiny fraction of the speed of light in a vacuum. In the movie, the top animation shows how the information in a pulse is compressed when it enters a BEC (contained inside the blue arc), and then returned to it's original form as it exits. In the movie, the lower animation illustrates a race between a light pulse that passes through a cigar-shaped BEC blob and a light pulse traveling in free space, demonstrating how light can be controlled with BECs. Techniques that slow light could potentially lead to devices that manipulate light in the same way that microelectronic chips and computers manipulate electrical signals and data.
Light comes in units of energy called photons which have no mass, only energy and momentum. Modern physics tells us that massless particles must move at the speed c in a vacuum. It's possible to slow light down by making it interact with matter and, in a sense, converting photons to something with mass. That's one way to understand what Lene Hau and colleagues at the Rowland Institute of Science did in 1999 when they slowed light to 17 miles per hour in a Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC) made of ultracold sodium atoms. The BEC is usually opaque, but the researchers made the material transparent by exposing it to a specific arrangement of laser beams. The lasers allowed incoming photons to combine with atoms to form a hybrid particle known as a polariton. Because polaritons get mass from the atoms, they move slower than c. In a BEC, many atoms condense to form one large, super atom. The super atoms are very heavy, and so are the polaritons formed with the incoming photons, and as a result they move much slower than c.
In 2001, Ron Walsworth, Mikhail Lukin and colleagues at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics formed slow moving polaritons in a vapor of rubidium atoms, in much the same way that Hau slowed light in a BEC. By turning down the lasers that made the vapor transparent, the researchers gradually reduced the portion of the polaritons that were made of photons and increased the portion made of atoms, and the light was effectively stopped and stored in the vapor. By turning the lasers back up, the researchers converted the polaritons back into photons, which then resumed their speed-of-light travel. At about the same time that this work was being done, Hau's group stopped light in a BEC.
Among other things, stopping light might provide a way to store data in future optical computers, or lead to new ways to manipulate light.
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST; also known colloquially as "the Hubble" or just "Hubble") is a space telescope that was carried into orbit around the Earth by the Space Shuttle Discovery in April 1990. It is named for the American astronomer Edwin Hubble. Hubble's position outside the Earth's atmosphere allows it to take extremely sharp images and, although not the first space telescope to be deployed, Hubble has become one of the most important instruments in the history of astronomy. Hubble's Ultra Deep Field image, for instance, is the most detailed visible-light image of the universe's most distant objects ever made. Many observations made using the telescope have led to breakthroughs in astrophysics.
The construction and launch of the Hubble was beset by delays and budget problems. Then, soon after its 1990 launch, it was found that the main mirror suffered from spherical aberration due to faulty quality control during its manufacturing, severely compromising the telescope's capabilities. However, after a servicing mission in 1993, the telescope was restored to its intended quality and became a vital research tool as well as a public relations boon for astronomy. The HST is part of NASA's Great Observatories series, with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Spitzer Space Telescope. Hubble is a collaboration between NASA and the European Space Agency.
The Hubble is the only telescope ever designed to be serviced in space by astronauts. To date, there have been four servicing missions, with a fifth and final mission planned for September 2008. Servicing Mission 1 took place in December 1993 when Hubble's imaging flaw was corrected. Servicing Mission 2 occurred in February 1997 when two new instruments were installed. Servicing Mission 3 was split into two distinct missions: SM3A occurred in December 1999 when urgently needed repairs were made to Hubble; and then SM3B followed in March 2002 when the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) was installed.
Since SM3B, the Hubble has lost use of two major science instruments and is operating with viewing restrictions because of rate-sensing gyroscope failures. There are six gyroscopes onboard Hubble and three are normally used for observing. However, after further failures, and in order to conserve lifetime, a decision was taken in August 2005 to switch off one of the functioning gyroscopes and operate Hubble using only 2 gyros in combination with the Fine Guidance Sensors. This mode retains the excellent image quality of Hubble, and provides a redundancy should it be needed. Further redundancy is available now that an operational mode requiring only one gyro has been developed and tested. Six new gyroscopes are planned to be installed in SM4.
The two instruments that have failed are the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) which stopped working in August 2004 and the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) which ceased operations in January 2007 (operations were later restored for its little used far-ultraviolet mode). Currently (mid-2007) Hubble observations are being taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). Astrometry is being carried out with the Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS). Without a reboost to increase the diameter of its orbit, drag will cause Hubble to re-enter the Earth's atmosphere sometime after 2010.
Following the 2003 Columbia Space Shuttle disaster, the fifth servicing mission (SM4), initially planned for 2004, was canceled on safety grounds. NASA determined that a manned mission would be too dangerous, due to a lack of access to the International Space Station (ISS), which can serve as a safe haven for an astronaut crew. The Shuttle cannot travel between the Hubble and ISS orbits. The organization later reconsidered this position, and, on October 31, 2006, NASA administrator Mike Griffin gave the green light for a final Hubble servicing mission to be flown by Atlantis. The mission is now planned for August 2008. As a safety precaution, NASA will have the orbiter Endeavour standing by at Launch Complex 39B to provide rescue in the event of an emergency. The planned repairs to the Hubble will allow the telescope to function until at least 2013, when its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), is due to be launched. The JWST will be far superior to Hubble for many astronomical research programs, but will only observe in infrared, so it will not replace Hubble's ability to observe in the visible and ultraviolet parts of the spectrum.
NASA's Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is a powerful space observatory that will open a wide window on the universe. Gamma rays are the highest-energy form of light, and the gamma-ray sky is spectacularly different from the one we perceive with our own eyes. With a huge leap in all key capabilities, GLAST data will enable scientists to answer persistent questions across a broad range of topics, including supermassive black-hole systems, pulsars, the origin of cosmic rays, and searches for signals of new physics.
The mission is an astrophysics and particle physics partnership, developed by NASA in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy, along with important contributions from academic institutions and partners in France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Sweden, and the U.S.
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WASHINGTON — A blue-ribbon panel of scientists is trying to determine the best way to detect and ward off any wandering space rocks that might be on a collision course with Earth.
``We're looking for the killer asteroid,'' James Heasley , of the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy , last week told the committee that the National Academy of Sciences created at Congress' request.
Congress asked the academy to conduct the study after astronomers were unable to eliminate an extremely slight chance that an asteroid called Apophis will slam into Earth with devastating effect in 2036.
Apophis was discovered in 2004 about 17 million miles from Earth on a course that would overlap our planet's orbit in 2029 and return seven years later. Observers said that the asteroid — a massive boulder left over from the birth of the solar system — is about 1,000 feet wide and weighs at least 50 million tons.
After further observations, astronomers reported that the asteroid would skim by Earth harmlessly in 2029, but it has a one in 44,000 probability of slamming into our planet on Easter Sunday , April 13, 2036 .
Small changes in Apophis' path that could make the difference between a hit or a miss are possible, according to Jon Giorgini , a planetary analyst in NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif.
``We have not eliminated the threat in 2036,'' Lindley Johnson , the manager of NASA's asteroid detection program, told the committee.
The academy panel is headed by Irwin Shapiro , a former director of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. It has a two-part assignment from Congress : Detect and deflect asteroids that might hit earth.
First, the Shapiro committee is supposed to propose the best way to detect and analyze 90 percent of the so-called ``near Earth objects'' orbiting between Mars and Venus that are wider than 460 feet by 2020.
About 20 percent of these are identified as potentially hazardous objects because they might pass within 5 million miles of Earth (20 times the distance to the Moon).
More than 5,000 near Earth objects, including 789 potentially hazardous objects, have been identified so far. Johnson predicted that future surveys will find at least 66,000 near Earth objects and 18,000 potentially hazardous objects.
A collision with one or more of these many objects littering the solar system is inevitable, Johnson said. ``Once every hundred years there might be something to worry about, but it could happen tomorrow.''
For example, astronomers had only 24 hours' notice of a small asteroid that blew up over northern Africa on Oct. 7 . A larger, more dangerous object presumably would be spotted years or decades ahead, giving humans time to change its course before it hit.
The Shapiro panel's second task is to review various methods that have been proposed to deflect or destroy an incoming asteroid and recommend the best options. They include a nuclear bomb, conventional explosives or a spacecraft that would push or pull the asteroid off its course.
Offbeat ideas are painting the surface of the asteroid so that the sun's rays would heat it differently and alter its direction, and a ``gravity tractor, ''a satellite that would fly close to the asteroid, gently nudging it aside.
The earlier that a dangerous asteroid is found, and the farther it is from Earth, the easier it will be to change its trajectory, panel members were told. A relatively small force would be enough while the object is millions of miles away.
The year 2029 could be crucial. When Apophis makes its first pass by Earth, its track can be more precisely determined. That will enable astronomers to judge whether Earth will escape with a near miss or will have to take swift action to avoid a blow that could devastate a region as large as Europe or the Eastern United States .
To deflect an asteroid, scientists need to know its shape, weight and composition. A ball of loose rubble would be handled differently from a solid metallic rock.
``Finding them is one thing, but you have to know your enemy,'' said James Green , the director of NASA's Planetary Science Division.
So far, NASA has spent $41 million on asteroid detection and deflection, but the Near Earth Object Program is running out of money.
``It's just barely hanging on,'' Shapiro said.
Two expensive telescopes to focus on dangerous asteroids have been proposed, but Congress and the incoming Obama administration must be persuaded to approve the money.
``Without new telescopes, we'd never get to 90 percent (detection),'' Johnson said.
After a lot of original skepticism, Congress now looks favorably on the asteroid project, according to Richard Obermann , the staff director of the House Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics.
``There used to be a high giggle factor among members,'' Obermann said. ``But it's now a very respectable area of investigation.''
Johnson told the Shapiro committee that the search for killer asteroids must have a high priority.
``The space program could provide humanity few greater legacies than to know the time and place of any cosmic destruction to allow ample time to prepare our response to that inevitable event,'' he said.
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"First Light" images from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory, a space telescope designed to study the sun.Launched on February 11th from Cape Canaveral.moment SDO's telescope doors opened, it began beaming back.
Richard Fisher, director of the Heliophysics Division at NASA,said “SDO will change our understanding of the sun and its processes, which affect our lives and society. This mission will have a huge impact on science, similar to Hubble Space Telescope on modern astrophysics.”
The sun’s internal dynamics were the subject of intense interest over the last few years as the normal waxing and waning of solar activity did not follow past cycles as closely as anticipated. The solar minimum of 2008 stretched deep into 2009, raising questions about how well we understand the complex internal dynamics that drive sun spots, solar flares and coronal-mass ejections.
Because solar storms can disrupt human technologies, it’s important to know when we might expect a serious event that could shut down the electrical grid, for example.
Great Minds, Great Words: Carl Sagan - Pale Blue Dot. A Vision of Human Future in Space.
The Pale Blue Dot is a photograph of planet Earth taken in 1990 by Voyager 1 from a record distance, showing it against the vastness of space. By request of Carl Sagan, NASA commanded the Voyager 1 spacecraft, having completed its primary mission and now leaving the solar system, to turn its camera around and to take a photograph of Earth. It was subsequently used by Sagan as the title of his 1994 book of the same name.
Playlist "Great Minds, Great Words":
Subscribe to Science & Reason:
BEST OF CARL SAGAN'S "COSMOS":
1) 10 Years After: Carl Sagan & Ann Druyan Reflect:
2) Lost Between Immensity And Eternity:
3) The Realm Of The Galaxies:
4) Our Galaxy, The Milky Way:
5) Our Solar System:
6) Eratosthenes And The Round Earth Model:
7) The Library Of Alexandria:
8) A Short History Of The Universe:
9) Artificial And Natural Selection:
10) The Cosmic Year:
11) Tree Of Life - 4 Billion Years Of Evolution:
12) The Miracle Of Life:
13) DNA - The Common Basis Of Life:
14) Abiogenesis - The Origin Of Life:
15) Astronomy vs Astrology:
16) Pictures In The Sky:
17) Ancient Astronomy:
18) Triumph Of Modern Science Over Medieval Superstition:
19) The Mysterious Tunguska Event:
20) Life Beyond Earth - Origin Of Life In The Universe
Voyager 1 was launched on September 5, 1977. Sagan had pushed for Voyager to take a photo of the Earth when its vantage point reached the edge of the solar system. On February 14, 1990, having completed its primary mission, NASA commanded the spacecraft to turn around to photograph the planets of the Solar System.
Between February 14, 1990 and June 6, 1990, one image Voyager returned was of Earth, showing up as a "pale blue dot" in the grainy photo. Carl Sagan gives the distance as 3.7 billion miles (6 billion kilometres) in his book.
Carl Edward Sagan, Ph.D. (1934-1996) was an American astronomer, astrochemist, author, and highly successful popularizer of astronomy, astrophysics and other natural sciences. He pioneered exobiology and promoted the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI).
He is world-famous for writing popular science books and for co-writing and presenting the award-winning 1980 television series "Cosmos: A Personal Voyage", which has been seen by more than 600 million people in over 60 countries, making it the most widely watched PBS program in history.
A book to accompany the program was also published. He also wrote the novel "Contact", the basis for the 1997 Robert Zemecki's film of the same name starring Jodie Foster.
During his lifetime, Sagan published more than 600 scientific papers and popular articles and was author, co-author, or editor of more than 20 books. In his works, he frequently advocated skeptical inquiry, secular humanism, and the scientific method.
BY JIM FLINK
You're watching multisource science news analysis from Newsy
“So let’s start with integration by parts. And don’t worry, I am here to help you with all your math phobias. So we have integration by parts, I can go back to calculus one, and say, d by bx..” (YouTube / mathboysmom)
That’s 12-year-old Jacob Barnett doing what all kids do -- advanced calculus -- on the back window of his house. Absolutely -- normal. Right?
TIME explains -- while there may be no such thing as normal -- Jacob’s a little extraordinary.
“...he didn't speak until the age of two...he started solving 5,000 piece puzzles by the age of 3. The 12-year-old taught himself calculus, algebra and geometry in two weeks...He left high school at the ripe old age of eight and has been attending college-level advanced astrophysics classes ever since.”
Technically, Jacob has a form of autism -- called Asperger’s syndrome. His parents were told he’d always be in special education classes. Uh -- wrong! A writer for Towson Unviersity’s TowerLight says, having that kid in class -- would be humbling.
“….don’t feel bad, Jake Barnett’s IQ (170) is 10 points higher than Albert Einstein or Stephen Hawking. Damn. How would you feel, sitting in the middle of your astrophysics class (like you would be in astrophysics)...watching a kid who still thinks light up shoes are cool... breeze past advance quantum mechanics.”
Light up shoes? How about enlightening us on the origins of the universe.
You know -- the Big Bang Theory? Boy Genius Barnett says -- it couldn’t have happened. Here’s the Indianapolis Star -- to -- try to explain in Jacob’s own words.
“...in the big-bang theory...there is this big explosion...this period where they suppose the hydrogen and helium were created...but I thought, wouldn't there have to be some sort of carbon?...the carbon would have to be coming out of the stars and hence the Earth, made mostly of carbon, (or) we wouldn't be here.”
Right, and while he’s on the subject, Yahoo! reports, Jacob has a few other notes for Einstein -- if only he’d pick up the phone.
“So personally I believe that there would be a different universal speed limit, that isn’t the speed of light, but probably slightly larger than it. Maybe point-9 times larger. Haven’t quite worked it out yet, to the point that it is actually related to the density of the universe.”
DVICE notes, while Einstein may not be tracking, other scientists are. One -- from Princeton wrote the family saying -- Jacob’s on the right track.
“The theory that he's working on involves several of the toughest problems in astrophysics and theoretical physics. Anyone who solves these will be in line for a Nobel Prize.”
Wanna follow along? Jacob’s mom has her own YouTube channel. We have the link in our transcript section.
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