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Lung diseases due to gas or chemical exposure are conditions that can be acquired from indoor and outdoor air pollution and from ingesting tobacco smoke.
The lungs are susceptible to many airborne poisons and irritants. Mucus present in the airways blocks foreign particles of a certain size, however it is unable to filter all airborne particulates. There are hundreds of substances that can pollute air and harm lungs. Harmful gases and chemicals are just one type of airborne pollutant that can adversely affect the lungs. They include:
* Vehicle exhaust
* Localized pollutants such as arsenic, asbestos, lead, and mercury
* Outdoor pollutants caused by industry and intensified by weather conditions
* Household heating, such as wood-burning stoves
* Household chemical products
* Tobacco smoke.
Lungs respond to irritants in four ways, each of which can occur separately or, more often, trigger other responses.
* Asthma occurs when irritation causes the smooth muscles surrounding the airways to constrict.
* Increased mucus comes from irritated mucus glands lining the airway. Excess mucus clogs the airway and prevents air from circulating.
* Constriction of the lungs results from scarring when the supporting tissues are damaged.
* Cancer is caused by certain irritants, such as asbestos and tobacco smoke.
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Lung disease generates three major symptoms—coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. It also predisposes the lungs to infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia. Cancer is a late effect, requiring prolonged exposure to an irritant. In the case of tobacco, an average of a pack of cigarettes a day for forty years, or two packs a day for twenty years, will greatly increase the risk of lung cancer.
A history of exposure combined with a chest x ray and lung function studies completes the diagnostic evaluation in most cases. Lung function measures the amount of air breathed in and out, the speed it moves, and the effectiveness of oxygen exchange with the blood. If the cause still is unclear, a lung biopsy aids diagnosis.
Eliminating the offending irritant and early antibiotics for infection are primary. There are many techniques available to remove excess mucus from the lungs. Respiratory therapists are trained in these methods. Finally, there are several machines available to enrich the oxygen content of breathed air.
A surgical treatment called lung reduction volume surgery is emerging as a treatment for certain people over age 65 with severe emphysema. It promises substantial return of lung function for selected patients by cutting away diseased parts of the lungs so that healthy tissue functions better. In the fall of 2003, Medicare announced that it would begin paying for the surgery.
Nearly every activity leaves behind some kind of waste in the environment. Households create ordinary garbage. Cars, trucks, and buses emit exhaust gases while in operation. Industrial and manufacturing processes create solid and hazardous waste. Some wastes contain chemicals that are hazardous to people and the environment. Once these hazardous chemicals are present in the environment, people can become exposed to them. Exposure occurs when people have contact with a chemical, either directly or through another substance contaminated with a chemical.
The place where the chemical originates is called the source. Chemicals can enter the environment from many different sources such as landfills, incinerators, tanks, drums, or factories. Human exposure to hazardous chemicals can occur at the source or the chemical could move to a place where people can come into contact with it. Chemicals can move through air, soil, and water. They can also be on plants or animals, and can get into the air we breathe, the food we eat and the water we drink.
The different ways a person can come into contact with hazardous chemicals are called exposure pathways. There are three basic exposure pathways: inhalation, ingestion, and skin contact. Inhalation is breathing or inhaling into the lungs. Ingestion is taking something in by mouth. Skin contact occurs when something comes in direct contact with the skin. Ingestion can be a secondary exposure pathway after skin contact has occurred, if you put your hands in your mouth and transfer the chemical from your hands to your mouth.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed informational summaries on selected chemicals to describe how people might be exposed to these chemicals and how exposure to them might affect their health. The summaries also explain what happens to the chemicals in the environment, who regulates them, and whom to contact for additional information.
Much like the garments you wear, it is vital to keep the carpets in your work space new and sterile. Spills and spots are inevitable, but they do not have to be permanent. The right cleaning chemical solutions can help you to keep your facility's carpets clean
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Stains become permanent when they're left unattended to for a drawn out stretch of time. General carpet cleaning stays away from permanent staining of your carpet.
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Carpet cleaning chemicals with a pH over 7 are on the soluble side of the pH scale. A cleaner with a pH up to 10 is viewed as "sheltered" to use on synthetic carpeting. Cleaning definitions with a pH over 10 (up to pH 14) can influence the stain resistance of nylon carpet, can cause issues like harmed carpet strands, shading misfortune and even stayed away from carpet guarantees. A carpet cleaner inside the 7-10 pH scale go and that can deliver successful cleaning comes about meets the criteria of the best carpet cleaning chemical.
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Radiation and DNA
Radiation is simply a mechanism whereby energy passes through space. It takes the form of an electromagnetic wave, with the frequency of the electromagnetic wave determining its position in the electromagnetic spectrum. Low-frequency waves such as radio waves lie at one end of the spectrum and high-energy, high-frequency X-rays/Gamma rays at the other end. These high-frequency, high-energy waves are termed “ionizing” (as opposed to non-ionizing) radiation because they contain sufficient energy to displace an electron from its orbit around a nucleus. The most important consequence of this displaced electron on human tissue is the potential damage it can inflict on DNA, which may occur directly or indirectly. Direct damage occurs when the displaced electron hits and breaks a DNA strand. Indirect damage occurs when the electron reacts with a water molecule, creating a powerful hydroxyl radical which then damages the cell’s DNA.
Damage to a cell’s DNA in either of these ways can have several consequences. A single-strand DNA break is usually repaired appropriately by the cell with no subsequent deleterious sequelae. However, a break affecting both strands of DNA allows the potential for abnormal reconnection of the strands, which likely accounts for all the adverse biological effects ionizing radiation has on humans. First, DNA may rejoin itself incorrectly, rendering the cell nonviable with cell death taking place. Second, it may rejoin as a symmetrical translocation with the potential expression of an oncogene during division (and development of subsequent malignancy) or with abnormal division in gonads, giving rise to potential hereditary disorders.
Radiosensitivity is the probability of a cell, tissue, or organ suffering an effect per unit dose of radiation. Radiosensitivity is highest in cells which are highly mitotic or undifferentiated. For this reason the basal epidermis, bone marrow, thymus, gonads, and lens cells are highly radiosensitive.
People are constantly exposed to low levels of naturally occurring radiation called background radiation. Background radiation comes from cosmic radiation and from radioactive elements in the air, water, and ground. Cosmic radiation is concentrated at the poles by the earth’s magnetic field and is attenuated by the atmosphere. Thus, exposure is greater for people living at high latitudes, at high altitudes, or both and during airplane flights.
Terrestrial sources of external radiation exposure are primarily due to the presence of radioactive elements with half-lives comparable to the age of the earth ( 4.5 billion years). In particular, uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th) along with several dozen of their radioactive progeny and a radioactive isotope of potassium (40K) are present in many rocks and minerals. Small quantities of these radionuclides are in the food, water, and air and thus contribute to internal exposure as these radionuclides are invariably incorporated into the body. The majority of the dose from internally incorporated radionuclides is from radioisotopes of carbon (14C) and potassium (40K), and because these and other elements (stable and radioactive forms) are constantly replenished in the body by ingestion and inhalation, there are approximately 7,000 atoms undergoing radioactive decay each second.
High-energy electromagnetic waves (x-rays, gamma rays)
Particles (alpha particles, beta particles, neutrons)
Alpha particles are energetic helium nuclei emitted by some radionuclides with high atomic numbers (eg, plutonium, radium, uranium); they cannot penetrate skin beyond a shallow depth (< 0.1 mm).
Beta particles are high-energy electrons that are emitted from the nuclei of unstable atoms (eg, cesium-137, iodine-131). These particles can penetrate more deeply into skin (1 to 2 cm) and cause both epithelial and subepithelial damage.
Neutrons are electrically neutral particles emitted by a few radionuclides (eg, californium-252) and produced in nuclear fission reactions (eg, in nuclear reactors); their depth of tissue penetration varies from a few millimeters to several tens of centimeters, depending on their energy. They collide with the nuclei of stable atoms, resulting in emission of energetic protons, alpha and beta particles, and gamma radiation.
Gamma radiation and x-rays are electromagnetic radiation (ie, photons) of very short wavelength that can penetrate deeply into tissue (many centimeters). While some photons deposit all their energy in the body, other photons of the same energy may only deposit a fraction of their energy and others may pass completely through the body without interacting.
Because of these characteristics, alpha and beta particles cause the most damage when the radioactive atoms that emit them are within the body (internal contamination) or, in the case of beta-emitters, directly on the body; only tissue in close proximity to the radionuclide is affected. Gamma rays and x-rays can cause damage distant from their source and are typically responsible for acute radiation syndromes (ARS—see Radiation Exposure and Contamination : Acute radiation syndromes (ARS)).
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Radiation injury is damage to tissues caused by exposure to ionizing radiation.
Large doses of ionizing radiation can cause acute illness by reducing the production of blood cells and damaging the digestive tract.
A very large dose of ionizing radiation can also damage the heart and blood vessels (cardiovascular system), brain, and skin.
Radiation injury due to large and very large doses is referred to as a tissue reaction. The dose needed to cause visible tissue injury varies with tissue type.
Ionizing radiation can increase the risk of cancer.
Radiation exposure of sperm and egg cells carries little increased risk of genetic defects in offspring.
Doctors remove as much external and internal (material that is inhaled or ingested) radioactive material as possible and treat symptoms and complications of radiation injury.
In general, ionizing radiation refers to high-energy electromagnetic waves (x-rays and gamma rays) and particles (alpha particles, beta particles, and neutrons) that are capable of stripping electrons from atoms (ionization). Ionization changes the chemistry of affected atoms and any molecules containing those atoms. By changing molecules in the highly ordered environment of the cell, ionizing radiation can disrupt and damage cells. Cellular damage can cause illness, increase the risk of developing cancer, or both.
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Biology is the natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms, including their physical and chemical structure, function, development and evolution. Modern biology is a vast field, composed of many branches. Despite the broad scope and the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. In general, biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation of new species. It is also understood that all organisms survive by consuming and transforming energy and by regulating their internal environment.
Sub-disciplines of biology are defined by the scale at which life is studied, the kinds of organisms studied, and the methods used to study them: biochemistry examines the rudimentary chemistry of life; molecular biology studies the complex interactions among biological molecules; cellular biology examines the basic building-block of all life, the cell; physiology examines the physical and chemical functions of tissues, organs, and organ systems; ecology examines how organisms interact in their environment; and evolutionary biology examines the processes that produced the diversity of life.
Ecology is the study of the distribution and abundance of living organisms, the interaction between them and their environment. An organism shares an environment that includes other organisms and biotic factors as well as local abiotic factors (non-living) such as climate and ecology. One reason that biological systems can be difficult to study is that so many different interactions with other organisms and the environment are possible, even on small scales. A microscopic bacterium responding to a local sugar gradient is responding to its environment as much as a lion searching for food in the African savanna. For any species, behaviors can be co-operative, competitive, parasitic, or symbiotic. by Royal Mentor
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