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1. A chemical toilet like all other regular toilets consists of a seat and a commode and has a reservoir to flush out the waste The reservoir is filled with chemicals and water
2. What makes chemical toilets different is that it has an inbuilt system that prevents odour and also reduces the volume of human waste before it is disposed
3. Chemical Toilets are ideal for portable cabins, airplanes but are also used in commercial buildings and homes because they eliminate the need for the use of odor prevention products
4. It is also one of the most popular kinds of toilets as it is more hygiene and also removes bacteria that spread through the air
5. Chemical toilets are portable toilets and require very little or no water Certain chemicals are used with small quantities of water to deodorize the waste
6. The most commonly used chemicals in portable toilets are formaldehyde and bromine
7. Chemical toilets are more often than not used as a temporary solution at construction sites and so on
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The mission of EPA’s Radiation Protection Program is to protect human health and the environment from unnecessary exposure to radiation. This page provides basic information about the health effects of radiation. EPA uses current scientific understanding of the health effects of radiation exposure to create protective standards and guidance.
Ionizing radiationHelpIonizing radiationRadiation with so much energy it can knock electrons out of atoms. Ionizing radiation can affect the atoms in living things, so it poses a health risk by damaging tissue and DNA in genes. has sufficient energy to cause chemical changes in cells and damage them. Some cells may die or become abnormal, either temporarily or permanently. By damaging the genetic material (DNA) contained in the body’s cells, radiation can cause cancer. Fortunately, our bodies are extremely efficient at repairing cell damage. The extent of the damage to the cells depends upon the amount and duration of the exposure, as well as the organs exposed.
A very large amount of radiation exposure (acute exposure), can cause sickness or even death within hours or days. Such acute exposures are extremely rare.
Radiation damage to tissue and/or organs depends on the dose of radiation received, or the absorbed dose which is expressed in a unit called the gray (Gy). The potential damage from an absorbed dose depends on the type of radiation and the sensitivity of different tissues and organs.
The effective dose is used to measure ionizing radiation in terms of the potential for causing harm. The sievert (Sv) is the unit of effective dose that takes into account the type of radiation and sensitivity of tissues and organs. It is a way to measure ionizing radiation in terms of the potential for causing harm. The Sv takes into account the type of radiation and sensitivity of tissues and organs.
Say some maniacal world leader finally hits the big red button. Or maybe a terrorist takes out the local nuclear reactor. You survive the initial attack, and you're left to endure a world poisoned by nuclear radiation. How's that gonna feel?
Measure the dosage
When nuclear reactions get going, they spit out particles with enough energy to rip electrons off of atoms or molecules. The altered bonds produce ion pairs that are extremely chemically reactive. This is known as ionizing radiation, and it's where the problems start.
There are many types of ionizing radiation. Take your pick from cosmic, alpha, beta, gamma or X- rays, neutrons, or from a handful more. What really matters is how much an organism is exposed to—a concept called absorbed dose.
One way to measure absorbed dose is in units of Grays (Gy). Another common unit is the sievert (Sv), which takes the Gy measure and multiples it by the type of radiation to calculate the effective dose in living tissue.
Medical diagnostic procedures used to define and diagnose medical conditions are currently the greatest manmade source of ionizing radiation exposure to the general population. However, even these sources are generally quite limited compared to the general background radiation on Earth.
The risks and benefits of radiation exposure due to medical imaging and other sources must be clearly defined for clinicians and their patients. This article is a general overview for the medical practitioner, who should understand the fundamentals of medical ionizing radiation and the general associated risks. This article also acquaints the practitioner with relative doses of common radiographic procedures as well as natural background radiation.
The use of ionizing radiation in medicine began with the discovery of x-rays by Roentgen in 1895. Ionizing radiation is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum with sufficient energy to pass through matter and physically dislodge orbital electrons to form ions. These ions, in turn, can produce biological changes when introduced into tissue. Ionizing radiation can exist in 2 forms: as an electromagnetic wave, such as an x-ray or gamma ray, or as a particle, in the form of an alpha or beta particle, neutron, or proton. X-rays are machine-generated, whereas gamma rays are electromagnetic waves that are emitted from the nucleus of an unstable atom. Different forms of ionizing radiation have differing abilities to generate biologic damage. The order of ionization effect of these forms can be found in Table 1 below.
A clear understanding of the measurement units of radiation and radioactivity is required to better communicate with colleagues or patients. Different units are used to describe radioactivity by energy (erg), decay activity rate (curie [Ci] or becquerel [Bq]), effect in air (roentgen [R]), ability to be absorbed (radiation-absorbed dose [rad] or gray [Gy]), or biologic effect (roentgen equivalent man [rem] or sievert [Sv]). Se
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Exposure of children to ionizing radiation most commonly is from the environment, chiefly through cosmic rays and radon, or from medical technology. Medical radiation exposure occurs during diagnosis, therapy, and dental radiography. More is known about the biological effects of exposure to ionizing radiation than to nonionizing radiation from microwaves, radiowaves, and the electrical fields of other electrical appliances. This review applies only to sources of ionizing radiation and does not include the potential risks of indoor radon. The effects on children of ionizing radiation have been studied from war activities and environmental accidents. Protections are mode from that data to help pediatricians evaluate risk from radiation when ordering radiographs.
Radiation is energy that comes from a source and travels through space. When this energy passes into the body, either by penetrating skin or being swallowed or inhaled, it may be harmful.
Whether the radiation is ionizing or non-ionizing will influence the health risks.
Ionizing radiation is the high-energy radiation that causes most of the concerns about radiation exposure during military service.
Ionizing radiation contains enough energy to remove an electron (ionize) from an atom or molecule and to damage DNA in cells.
Sources of ionizing radiation during military service include:
* Nuclear weapons handling and detonation
* Weapons and other military equipment made with depleted uranium
* Radioactive material
* Calibration and measurement sources
Non-iodizing radiation is low-energy radiation that includes radiation from sources such as sunlight, microwaves, radio frequencies, radar and sonar.
The term radiation refers to energy that travels through space or matter in the form of energetic waves or particles. When radiation occurs, the waves move out in all directions from the producer of the energy. Radiation can be ionizing, which means it has the capacity to modify the ions of an atom, or non-ionizing, in which it does not possess that ability.
Examples of Everyday Radiation
Near ultraviolet light
Low frequency waves
Waves produced by mobile phones
A campfire's heat
Extremely low frequency waves (3 – 30 Hz)
Very low frequency waves (3-30 kHz)
Light from the sun
Radio-frequency radiation such as televisions, FM and AM radio
Shortwave and CB's
Infrared lamps use to maintain food temperature in restaurants
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Radiation therapy treats many types of cancer effectively. But like other treatments, it often causes side effects. These are different for each person. They depend on the type of cancer, location, doses, and your general health.
Why does radiation therapy cause side effects?
High doses of radiation are used to destroy cancer cells. Side effects occur because radiation can also damage healthy cells and tissues near the treatment area. Today, major advances in radiation technology have made it more precise, leading to fewer side effects.
For some people, radiation therapy causes few or no side effects. For others, the side effects are more severe. Reactions often start during the second or third week of treatment. Also, they may last for several weeks after the final treatment.
Can side effects be prevented or treated?
Yes. Your health care team can help you prevent or treat many side effects. Preventing and treating side effects is now an important part of cancer treatment. It is part of a type of care called palliative care.
The side effects of radiation therapy vary from patient to patient. Most patients have only mild side effects that are easily managed.
There are two main types of side effects: acute and chronic. Acute side effects occur during the treatment phase and typically go away a few weeks after treatment is finished. They include fatigue, skin reactions, and side effects specific to the area being treated.
The most common acute side effect of radiation therapy is fatigue, a sense of tiredness or general weakness. It is believed to be caused by the tremendous amount of energy that is used by the body to heal itself in response to radiation therapy.
Most people begin to feel fatigued about 2 weeks after radiation treatments begin. The tired feeling goes away gradually after the treatment is finished. Normal levels of energy generally return a few weeks after completing treatment, but can take as long as a year, particularly if you received chemotherapy as well. For more information on fatigue, go to Side Effect: Fatigue.
Many patients are surprised to discover that having radiation therapy is less difficult than they expected, though the radiation used to damage cancer in your body can also damage healthy cells. Just as the benefits of radiation are gradual, you'll usually see a gradual onset of side effects.
Not everyone experiences side effects of radiation. But by being ready for these reactions and responding quickly, you and your doctor can minimize their effect on your life. Several weeks after treatment ends, the side effects typically go away.
Each individual person will have a unique response, so it's hard to predict exactly what will and won't happen to you. Many of the expected side effects from radiation prove to be misperceptions. Still, if you do have fears about side effects, it can take away your peace of mind.
On these pages, you can read about the kinds of side effects you may experience over the course of your radiation treatment:
lowered white blood cell counts
The thermochromic pigments are used in paint & coating, ink printing, and plastic products to either show the temperature change or to increase aesthetics of the product.