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Open Mind Body Soul has been helping many people with the cleansing of the negative energy around them through their positive and motivational articles and quotes. Read about the benefits of meditation and positive thinking and how it can help you live your life better. Visit the website to know more.
29 Jun 2017
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Medical diagnostic procedures used to define and diagnose medical conditions are currently the greatest manmade source of ionizing radiation exposure to the general population. However, even these sources are generally quite limited compared to the general background radiation on Earth. The risks and benefits of radiation exposure due to medical imaging and other sources must be clearly defined for clinicians and their patients. This article is a general overview for the medical practitioner, who should understand the fundamentals of medical ionizing radiation and the general associated risks. This article also acquaints the practitioner with relative doses of common radiographic procedures as well as natural background radiation. The use of ionizing radiation in medicine began with the discovery of x-rays by Roentgen in 1895. Ionizing radiation is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum with sufficient energy to pass through matter and physically dislodge orbital electrons to form ions. These ions, in turn, can produce biological changes when introduced into tissue. Ionizing radiation can exist in 2 forms: as an electromagnetic wave, such as an x-ray or gamma ray, or as a particle, in the form of an alpha or beta particle, neutron, or proton. X-rays are machine-generated, whereas gamma rays are electromagnetic waves that are emitted from the nucleus of an unstable atom. Different forms of ionizing radiation have differing abilities to generate biologic damage. The order of ionization effect of these forms can be found in Table 1 below. A clear understanding of the measurement units of radiation and radioactivity is required to better communicate with colleagues or patients. Different units are used to describe radioactivity by energy (erg), decay activity rate (curie [Ci] or becquerel [Bq]), effect in air (roentgen [R]), ability to be absorbed (radiation-absorbed dose [rad] or gray [Gy]), or biologic effect (roentgen equivalent man [rem] or sievert [Sv]). Se
23 Jun 2017
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The mission of EPA’s Radiation Protection Program is to protect human health and the environment from unnecessary exposure to radiation. This page provides basic information about the health effects of radiation. EPA uses current scientific understanding of the health effects of radiation exposure to create protective standards and guidance. Ionizing radiationHelpIonizing radiationRadiation with so much energy it can knock electrons out of atoms. Ionizing radiation can affect the atoms in living things, so it poses a health risk by damaging tissue and DNA in genes. has sufficient energy to cause chemical changes in cells and damage them. Some cells may die or become abnormal, either temporarily or permanently. By damaging the genetic material (DNA) contained in the body’s cells, radiation can cause cancer. Fortunately, our bodies are extremely efficient at repairing cell damage. The extent of the damage to the cells depends upon the amount and duration of the exposure, as well as the organs exposed. A very large amount of radiation exposure (acute exposure), can cause sickness or even death within hours or days. Such acute exposures are extremely rare. Radiation damage to tissue and/or organs depends on the dose of radiation received, or the absorbed dose which is expressed in a unit called the gray (Gy). The potential damage from an absorbed dose depends on the type of radiation and the sensitivity of different tissues and organs. The effective dose is used to measure ionizing radiation in terms of the potential for causing harm. The sievert (Sv) is the unit of effective dose that takes into account the type of radiation and sensitivity of tissues and organs. It is a way to measure ionizing radiation in terms of the potential for causing harm. The Sv takes into account the type of radiation and sensitivity of tissues and organs.
26 Jun 2017
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Exposure of children to ionizing radiation most commonly is from the environment, chiefly through cosmic rays and radon, or from medical technology. Medical radiation exposure occurs during diagnosis, therapy, and dental radiography. More is known about the biological effects of exposure to ionizing radiation than to nonionizing radiation from microwaves, radiowaves, and the electrical fields of other electrical appliances. This review applies only to sources of ionizing radiation and does not include the potential risks of indoor radon. The effects on children of ionizing radiation have been studied from war activities and environmental accidents. Protections are mode from that data to help pediatricians evaluate risk from radiation when ordering radiographs.
28 Jun 2017
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Radiation is energy that comes from a source and travels through space. When this energy passes into the body, either by penetrating skin or being swallowed or inhaled, it may be harmful. Whether the radiation is ionizing or non-ionizing will influence the health risks. Ionizing radiation Ionizing radiation is the high-energy radiation that causes most of the concerns about radiation exposure during military service. Ionizing radiation contains enough energy to remove an electron (ionize) from an atom or molecule and to damage DNA in cells. Sources of ionizing radiation during military service include: * Nuclear weapons handling and detonation * Weapons and other military equipment made with depleted uranium * Radioactive material * Calibration and measurement sources * X-rays Non-ionizing radiation Non-iodizing radiation is low-energy radiation that includes radiation from sources such as sunlight, microwaves, radio frequencies, radar and sonar.
2 Jul 2017
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The term radiation refers to energy that travels through space or matter in the form of energetic waves or particles. When radiation occurs, the waves move out in all directions from the producer of the energy. Radiation can be ionizing, which means it has the capacity to modify the ions of an atom, or non-ionizing, in which it does not possess that ability. Examples of Everyday Radiation Non-ionizing Radiation Visible light Infrared light Near ultraviolet light Microwaves Low frequency waves Radio waves Waves produced by mobile phones A campfire's heat Thermal radiation Extremely low frequency waves (3 – 30 Hz) Very low frequency waves (3-30 kHz) Power lines Strong magnets MRI LEDs Lasers Light bulbs Light from the sun Remote controls Cordless phones Radio-frequency radiation such as televisions, FM and AM radio Shortwave and CB's Computer screens Infrared lamps use to maintain food temperature in restaurants Ionizing Radiation
3 Jul 2017
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Radiation therapy treats many types of cancer effectively. But like other treatments, it often causes side effects. These are different for each person. They depend on the type of cancer, location, doses, and your general health. Why does radiation therapy cause side effects? High doses of radiation are used to destroy cancer cells. Side effects occur because radiation can also damage healthy cells and tissues near the treatment area. Today, major advances in radiation technology have made it more precise, leading to fewer side effects. For some people, radiation therapy causes few or no side effects. For others, the side effects are more severe. Reactions often start during the second or third week of treatment. Also, they may last for several weeks after the final treatment. Can side effects be prevented or treated? Yes. Your health care team can help you prevent or treat many side effects. Preventing and treating side effects is now an important part of cancer treatment. It is part of a type of care called palliative care.
7 Jul 2017
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The side effects of radiation therapy vary from patient to patient. Most patients have only mild side effects that are easily managed. There are two main types of side effects: acute and chronic. Acute side effects occur during the treatment phase and typically go away a few weeks after treatment is finished. They include fatigue, skin reactions, and side effects specific to the area being treated. The most common acute side effect of radiation therapy is fatigue, a sense of tiredness or general weakness. It is believed to be caused by the tremendous amount of energy that is used by the body to heal itself in response to radiation therapy. Most people begin to feel fatigued about 2 weeks after radiation treatments begin. The tired feeling goes away gradually after the treatment is finished. Normal levels of energy generally return a few weeks after completing treatment, but can take as long as a year, particularly if you received chemotherapy as well. For more information on fatigue, go to Side Effect: Fatigue.
8 Jul 2017
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Many patients are surprised to discover that having radiation therapy is less difficult than they expected, though the radiation used to damage cancer in your body can also damage healthy cells. Just as the benefits of radiation are gradual, you'll usually see a gradual onset of side effects. Not everyone experiences side effects of radiation. But by being ready for these reactions and responding quickly, you and your doctor can minimize their effect on your life. Several weeks after treatment ends, the side effects typically go away. Each individual person will have a unique response, so it's hard to predict exactly what will and won't happen to you. Many of the expected side effects from radiation prove to be misperceptions. Still, if you do have fears about side effects, it can take away your peace of mind. On these pages, you can read about the kinds of side effects you may experience over the course of your radiation treatment: armpit discomfort chest pain fatigue heart problems lowered white blood cell counts lung problems
13 Jul 2017
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Radiation exposure may be internal or external, and can be acquired through various exposure pathways. Internal exposure to ionizing radiation occurs when a radionuclide is inhaled, ingested or otherwise enters into the bloodstream (for example, by injection or through wounds). Internal exposure stops when the radionuclide is eliminated from the body, either spontaneously (such as through excreta) or as a result of a treatment. External exposure may occur when airborne radioactive material (such as dust, liquid, or aerosols) is deposited on skin or clothes. This type of radioactive material can often be removed from the body by simply washing. Exposure to ionizing radiation can also result from irradiation from an external source, such as medical radiation exposure from X-rays. External irradiation stops when the radiation source is shielded or when the person moves outside the radiation field. People can be exposed to ionizing radiation under different circumstances, at home or in public places (public exposures), at their workplaces (occupational exposures), or in a medical setting (as are patients, caregivers, and volunteers). Exposure to ionizing radiation can be classified into 3 exposure situations. The first, planned exposure situations, result from the deliberate introduction and operation of radiation sources with specific purposes, as is the case with the medical use of radiation for diagnosis or treatment of patients, or the use of radiation in industry or research. The second type of situation, existing exposures, is where exposure to radiation already exists, and a decision on control must be taken – for example, exposure to radon in homes or workplaces or exposure to natural background radiation from the environment. The last type, emergency exposure situations, result from unexpected events requiring prompt response such as nuclear accidents or malicious acts.
15 Jul 2017
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Radiation damage to tissue and/or organs depends on the dose of radiation received, or the absorbed dose which is expressed in a unit called the gray (Gy). The potential damage from an absorbed dose depends on the type of radiation and the sensitivity of different tissues and organs. The effective dose is used to measure ionizing radiation in terms of the potential for causing harm. The sievert (Sv) is the unit of effective dose that takes into account the type of radiation and sensitivity of tissues and organs. It is a way to measure ionizing radiation in terms of the potential for causing harm. The Sv takes into account the type of radiation and sensitivity of tissues and organs. The Sv is a very large unit so it is more practical to use smaller units such as millisieverts (mSv) or microsieverts (μSv). There are one thousand μSv in one mSv, and one thousand mSv in one Sv. In addition to the amount of radiation (dose), it is often useful to express the rate at which this dose is delivered (dose rate), such as microsieverts per hour (μSv/hour) or millisievert per year (mSv/year). Beyond certain thresholds, radiation can impair the functioning of tissues and/or organs and can produce acute effects such as skin redness, hair loss, radiation burns, or acute radiation syndrome. These effects are more severe at higher doses and higher dose rates. For instance, the dose threshold for acute radiation syndrome is about 1 Sv (1000 mSv). If the radiation dose is low and/or it is delivered over a long period of time (low dose rate), the risk is substantially lower because there is a greater likelihood of repairing the damage. There is still a risk of long-term effects such as cancer, however, that may appear years or even decades later. Effects of this type will not always occur, but their likelihood is proportional to the radiation dose. This risk is higher for children and adolescents, as they are significantly more sensitive to radiation exposure than adults.
16 Jul 2017
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Say some maniacal world leader finally hits the big red button. Or maybe a terrorist takes out the local nuclear reactor. You survive the initial attack, and you're left to endure a world poisoned by nuclear radiation. How's that gonna feel? Measure the dosage When nuclear reactions get going, they spit out particles with enough energy to rip electrons off of atoms or molecules. The altered bonds produce ion pairs that are extremely chemically reactive. This is known as ionizing radiation, and it's where the problems start. There are many types of ionizing radiation. Take your pick from cosmic, alpha, beta, gamma or X- rays, neutrons, or from a handful more. What really matters is how much an organism is exposed to—a concept called absorbed dose. One way to measure absorbed dose is in units of Grays (Gy). Another common unit is the sievert (Sv), which takes the Gy measure and multiples it by the type of radiation to calculate the effective dose in living tissue.
18 Jul 2017
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Radiation includes High-energy electromagnetic waves (x-rays, gamma rays) Particles (alpha particles, beta particles, neutrons) Alpha particles are energetic helium nuclei emitted by some radionuclides with high atomic numbers (eg, plutonium, radium, uranium); they cannot penetrate skin beyond a shallow depth (< 0.1 mm). Beta particles are high-energy electrons that are emitted from the nuclei of unstable atoms (eg, cesium-137, iodine-131). These particles can penetrate more deeply into skin (1 to 2 cm) and cause both epithelial and subepithelial damage. Neutrons are electrically neutral particles emitted by a few radionuclides (eg, californium-252) and produced in nuclear fission reactions (eg, in nuclear reactors); their depth of tissue penetration varies from a few millimeters to several tens of centimeters, depending on their energy. They collide with the nuclei of stable atoms, resulting in emission of energetic protons, alpha and beta particles, and gamma radiation. Gamma radiation and x-rays are electromagnetic radiation (ie, photons) of very short wavelength that can penetrate deeply into tissue (many centimeters). While some photons deposit all their energy in the body, other photons of the same energy may only deposit a fraction of their energy and others may pass completely through the body without interacting. Because of these characteristics, alpha and beta particles cause the most damage when the radioactive atoms that emit them are within the body (internal contamination) or, in the case of beta-emitters, directly on the body; only tissue in close proximity to the radionuclide is affected. Gamma rays and x-rays can cause damage distant from their source and are typically responsible for acute radiation syndromes (ARS—see Radiation Exposure and Contamination : Acute radiation syndromes (ARS)).
21 Jul 2017
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3 Jul 2017
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