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An enormous gap exists between prokaryote (bacteria and cyanobacteria) cells and eukaryote (protists, plants and animals) type of cells: Excerpt: A crucial difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is the means they use to produce ATP. All life produces ATP by three basic chemical methods only: oxidative phosphorylation, photophosphorylation, and substrate-level phosphorylation (Lim, 1998, p. 149). In prokaryotes ATP is produced both in the cell wall and in the cytosol by glycolysis. In eukaryotes most ATP is produced in chloroplasts (for plants), or in mitochondria (for both plants and animals). No means of producing ATP exists that is intermediate between these four basic methods and no transitional forms have ever been found that bridge the gap between these four different forms of ATP production. The machinery required to manufacture ATP is so intricate that viruses are not able to make their own ATP. They require cells to manufacture it and viruses have no source of energy apart from cells. ...prokaryotes and eukaryotes are profoundly different from each other and clearly represent a marked dichotomy in the 'evolution' of life. . . The organizational complexity of the eukaryotes is so much greater than that of the prokaryotes that it is difficult to visualize how a eukaryote could have arisen from any known prokaryote (Hickman et al., 1997, p. 39). Some of the differences are that prokaryotes lack organelles, a cytoskeleton, and most of the other structures present in eukaryotic cells. Consequently, the functions of most organelles and other ultrastructure cell parts must be performed in bacteria by the cell membrane and its infoldings called mesosomes. *******www.trueorigin****/atp.asp The Darwinian Basis of the Prokaryote-to-Eukaryote Transition Collapses - Nov. 2010 *******www.evolutionnews****/2010/11/on_the_energetics_of_genome_co040431.html Evolution vs ATP Synthase - Molecular Machine - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4012706 The ATP Synthase Enzyme - exquisite motor necessary for first life - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=W3KxU63gcF4 The inner life of a cell - Harvard University - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=mbcWGU8fpxA User's guide to the video *******sparkleberrysprings****/innerlifeofcell.html The Cell - A World Of Complexity Darwin Never Dreamed Of - Donald E. Johnson - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4139390 Ben Stein - EXPELLED - The Staggering Complexity Of The Cell - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4227700 Articles and Videos on Molecular Motors *******docs.google****/Doc?docid=0AYmaSrBPNEmGZGM4ejY3d3pfMzlkNjYydmRkZw&hl=en Michael Behe - Life Reeks Of Design - 2010 - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/5066181 Stephen Meyer - Functional Proteins And Information For Body Plans - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4050681 Intelligent Design - The Anthropic Hypothesis *******lettherebelight-77.blogspot****/2009/10/intelligent-design-anthropic-hypothesis_19.html
18 Nov 2010
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Scientific Evidence For The First Life On Earth - video *******science.discovery****/videos/the-planets-life-earliest-evidence.html Dr. Hugh Ross - Origin Of Life Paradox - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4012696/origin_of_life_paradox_hugh_ross/ The Biological Big Bang model for the major transitions in evolution - Eugene V Koonin - Background: "Major transitions in biological evolution show the same pattern of sudden emergence of diverse forms at a new level of complexity. The relationships between major groups within an emergent new class of biological entities are hard to decipher and do not seem to fit the tree pattern that, following Darwin's original proposal, remains the dominant description of biological evolution. The cases in point include the origin of complex RNA molecules and protein folds; major groups of viruses; archaea and bacteria, and the principal lineages within each of these prokaryotic domains; eukaryotic supergroups; and animal phyla. In each of these pivotal nexuses in life's history, the principal "types" seem to appear rapidly and fully equipped with the signature features of the respective new level of biological organization. No intermediate "grades" or intermediate forms between different types are detectable; *******www.biology-direct****/content/2/1/21 It should be noted that Koonin goes on to try to account for the origination of the massive amounts of functional information, required for the Cambrian Explosion, by trying to access an "undirected" mechanism of Quantum Mechanics called 'Many Worlds'. Besides Koonin ignoring the fact that Quantum Events, on a whole, are strictly restricted to the transcendent universal laws/constants of the universe, it is also fair to note, in criticism to Koonin's scenario, that appealing to the undirected infinite probabilistic resource, of the quantum mechanics of the Many Worlds scenario, actually greatly increases the amount of totally chaotic information one would expect to see generated. Though Koonin is correct to recognize that the infinite probabilistic resource of Quantum Mechanics does not absolutely preclude the sudden appearance of massive amounts of functional information in the fossil record, he is incorrect to disregard the "Logos" of John 1:1 needed to correctly specify the "controlled mechanism of implementation" for the massive amounts of complex functional information witnessed abruptly and mysteriously appearing in the fossil record. i.e. he must sufficiently account for the "cause" for the "effect" he wants to explain. Stephen Meyer - Functional Proteins And Information For Body Plans - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4050681/stephen_meyer_functional_proteins_and_information_for_body_plans/ The Avalon Explosion: Excerpt: Ediacara fossils [575 to 542 million years ago (Ma)] represent Earth's oldest known complex macroscopic life forms,,, A comprehensive quantitative analysis of these fossils indicates that the oldest Ediacara assemblage—the Avalon assemblage (575 to 565 Ma)—already encompassed the full range of Ediacara morphospace. (i.e. they appeared abruptly in the fossil record and retained their same basic shape and form throughout their tenure in the fossil record before they went extinct prior to the Cambrian explosion.) *******www.sciencemag****/cgi/content/abstract/319/5859/81 The Cambrian Explosion - Back To A Miracle! - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4112218/the_cambrian_explosion_back_to_a_miracle/ Darwin's Dilemma Trailer - Excellent Cambrian Explosion Movie Now Available On DVD - Sept. 2009 *******www.illustramedia****/ddinfo.htm "Darwin's Dilemma examines some of the most important fossil discoveries ever made and with them, a mystery deeper than Charles Darwin ever imagined. For the fossil record of the Cambrian Explosion does not reveal the gradual development of life forms as Darwin posited in his work, but a period in which compound eyes, articulated limbs, sophisticated sensory organs and skeletal frames burst into existence seemingly out of nowhere." - Anika Smith - Discovery Institute "The Cambrian Explosion was so short that it is below the resolution of the fossil record. It could have happened overnight. So we don't know the duration of the Cambrian Explosion. We just know that it was very, very, fast." Jonathan Wells - Darwin's Dilemma Quote It is in the ancient seas of the Cambrian explosion, some 540 million years ago, where we find the abrupt appearance of many strangely diverse and complex forms of life. These complex life-forms appear suddenly with no evidence of transition from the bacteria and few other stable, and simple, life-forms that preceded them in the fossil record. These following quotes clearly illustrate this point. Materialistic Basis of the Cambrian Explosion is Elusive: BioEssays Vol. 31 (7):736 - 747 - July 2009 Excerpt: "going from an essentially static system billions of years in existence to the one we find today, a dynamic and awesomely complex system whose origin seems to defy explanation. Part of the intrigue with the Cambrian explosion is that numerous animal phyla with very distinct body plans arrive on the scene in a geological blink of the eye, with little or no warning of what is to come in rocks that predate this interval of time." ---"Thus, elucidating the materialistic basis of the Cambrian explosion has become more elusive, not less, the more we know about the event itself, and cannot be explained away by coupling extinction of intermediates with long stretches of geologic time, despite the contrary claims of some modern neo-Darwinists." *******www.evolutionnews****/2009/06/bioessays_article_admits_mater.html Deepening Darwin's Dilemma - Jonathan Wells - Sept. 2009 Excerpt: "The truth is that (finding) “exceptionally preserved microbes” from the late Precambrian actually deepen Darwin’s dilemma, because they suggest that if there had been ancestors to the Cambrian phyla they would have been preserved." *******www.discovery****/a/12471 Deepening Darwin's Dilemma - Jonathan Wells - The Cambrian Explosion - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4154263/deepening_darwins_dilemma_jonathan_wells_the_cambrian_explosion/ The Center Of The Universe Is Life - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/3993426/the_center_of_the_universe_is_life/ Intelligent Design - The Anthropic Hypothesis *******lettherebelight-77.blogspot****/
16 Sep 2010
1955
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Entire video: Wonders of the Cell - Chris Ashcraft *******www.youtube****/watch?v=OQks3COscX4 Electron Microscope Photograph of Flagellum Hook-Basal Body *******www.skeptic****/eskeptic/08-08-20images/figure03.jpg Bacterial Flagellum: Visualizing the Complete Machine In Situ Excerpt: Electron tomography of frozen-hydrated bacteria, combined with single particle averaging, has produced stunning images of the intact bacterial flagellum, revealing features of the rotor, stator and export apparatus. *******www.sciencedirect****/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VRT-4M8WTCF-K&_user=10&_coverDate=11%2F07%2F2006&_rdoc=1&_fmt=full&_orig=search&_cdi=6243&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=8d7e0ad266148c9d917cf0c2a9d12e82&artImgPref=F Bacterial Flagellum - A Sheer Wonder Of Intelligent Design - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/3994630 Biologist Howard Berg at Harvard calls the Bacterial Flagellum “the most efficient machine in the universe." I would like to reiterate, Darwinism postulated a very simple first cell, yet the simplest cell scientists have been able to find on earth, which can't even be seen with the naked eye, is vastly more complex than any machine man has ever made through concerted effort. This is self evident since a cell can self-replicate with seeming ease whereas a machine cannot. This following site has a interactive graph that lets people look into this 'invisible' world of microbes: CELL TO CARBON ATOM - SIZE AND SCALE - Interactive Graph - Move cursor at the bottom of graph to the right to reduce the size: *******learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/cells/scale/ The smallest cyano-bacterium known to science has hundreds of millions of individual atomic molecules (not counting water molecules), divided into nearly a thousand completely distinct atomic molecule types; and a genome (DNA sequence) of 1.8 million bits, with over a million individual protein molecules which are sub-divided into hundreds of distinct protein classes. Once again, the complexity found in the simplest bacterium known to science easily outclasses the complexity of any machine man has made. These following articles and videos make this point clear: "The manuals needed for building the entire space shuttle and all its components and all its support systems would be truly enormous! Yet the specified complexity (information) of even the simplest form of life - a bacterium - is arguably as great as that of the space shuttle." J.C. Sanford - Geneticist - Genetic Entropy and the Mystery Of the Genome 'The information content of a simple cell has been estimated as around 10^12 bits, comparable to about a hundred million pages of the Encyclopedia Britannica." Carl Sagan, "Life" in Encyclopedia Britannica: Macropaedia (1974 ed.), pp. 893-894 of note: The 10^12 bits of information number for a bacterium is derived from entropic considerations, which is, due to the tightly integrated relationship between information and entropy, considered the most accurate measure of the transcendent information present in a 'simple' life form. For calculations please see the following site: Molecular Biophysics – Information theory. Relation between information and entropy: *******www.astroscu.unam.mx/~angel/tsb/molecular.htm Ben Stein - EXPELLED - The Staggering Complexity Of The Cell - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4227700 “Although the tiniest living things known to science, bacterial cells, are incredibly small (10^-12 grams), each is a veritable micro-miniaturized factory containing thousands of elegantly designed pieces of intricate molecular machinery, made up altogether of one hundred thousand million atoms, far more complicated than any machine built by man and absolutely without parallel in the non-living world”. Michael Denton, "Evolution: A Theory in Crisis," 1986, p. 250. Nanoelectronic Transistor Combined With Biological Machine Could Lead To Better Electronics: - Aug. 2009 Excerpt: While modern communication devices rely on electric fields and currents to carry the flow of information, biological systems are much more complex. They use an arsenal of membrane receptors, channels and pumps to control signal transduction that is unmatched by even the most powerful computers. *******www.sciencedaily****/releases/2009/08/090811091834.htm The Cell as a Collection of Protein Machines "We have always underestimated cells. Undoubtedly we still do today,,, Indeed, the entire cell can be viewed as a factory that contains an elaborate network of interlocking assembly lines, each which is composed of a set of large protein machines." Bruce Alberts: Former President, National Academy of Sciences; *******www.imbb.forth.gr/people/aeconomou/documents/Alberts98.pdf The Cell - A World Of Complexity Darwin Never Dreamed Of - Donald E. Johnson - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4139390 Entire video: *******www.ideaclubtcw****/video/DEJohnson.html Bioinformatics: The Information in Life - Donald Johnson - video *******vimeo****/11314902 On a slide in the preceding video, entitled 'Information Systems In Life', Dr. Johnson points out that: * the genetic system is a pre-existing operating system; * the specific genetic program (genome) is an application; * the native language has codon-based encryption system; * the codes are read by enzyme computers with their own operating system; * each enzyme’s output is to another operating system in a ribosome; * codes are decrypted and output to tRNA computers; * each codon-specified amino acid is transported to a protein construction site; and * in each cell, there are multiple operating systems, multiple programming languages, encoding/decoding hardware and software, specialized communications systems, error detection/correction systems, specialized input/output for organelle control and feedback, and a variety of specialized “devices” to accomplish the tasks of life. Cells Are Like Robust Computational Systems, - June 2009 Excerpt: Gene regulatory networks in cell nuclei are similar to cloud computing networks, such as Google or Yahoo!, researchers report today in the online journal Molecular Systems Biology. The similarity is that each system keeps working despite the failure of individual components, whether they are master genes or computer processors. ,,,,"We now have reason to think of cells as robust computational devices, employing redundancy in the same way that enables large computing systems, such as Amazon, to keep operating despite the fact that servers routinely fail." *******www.sciencedaily****/releases/2009/06/090616103205.htm Systems biology: Untangling the protein web - July 2009 Excerpt: Vidal thinks that technological improvements — especially in nanotechnology, to generate more data, and microscopy, to explore interaction inside cells, along with increased computer power — are required to push systems biology forward. "Combine all this and you can start to think that maybe some of the information flow can be captured," he says. But when it comes to figuring out the best way to explore information flow in cells, Tyers jokes that it is like comparing different degrees of infinity. "The interesting point coming out of all these studies is how complex these systems are — the different feedback loops and how they cross-regulate each other and adapt to perturbations are only just becoming apparent," he says. "The simple pathway models are a gross oversimplification of what is actually happening." *******www.nature****/nature/journal/v460/n7253/full/460415a.html Simulations reveal new information about the gateway to the cell nucleus Excerpt: “There are whole machines in living cells that are made of hundreds or thousands of proteins,” says Schulten, “and the nuclear pore is one of those systems. It’s actually one of the most magnificent systems in the cell.”,,,Hundreds to thousands of NPCs are embedded in the nuclear envelope of each cell,"... *******www.psc.edu/science/2006/schulten/ Life Leads the Way to Invention - Feb. 2010 Excerpt: a cell is 10,000 times more energy-efficient than a transistor. “ In one second, a cell performs about 10 million energy-consuming chemical reactions, which altogether require about one picowatt (one millionth millionth of a watt) of power.” This and other amazing facts lead to an obvious conclusion: inventors ought to look to life for ideas.,,, Essentially, cells may be viewed as circuits that use molecules, ions, proteins and DNA instead of electrons and transistors. That analogy suggests that it should be possible to build electronic chips – what Sarpeshkar calls “cellular chemical computers” – that mimic chemical reactions very efficiently and on a very fast timescale. *******creationsafaris****/crev201002.htm#20100226a This stunning energy efficiency of a cell is found across all life domains, thus strongly suggesting that all life on earth was Intelligently Design for maximal efficiency instead of accidentally, and gradually, evolved: Mean mass-specific metabolic rates are strikingly similar across life's major domains: Evidence for life's metabolic optimum Excerpt: Here, using the largest database to date, for 3,006 species that includes most of the range of biological diversity on the planet—from bacteria to elephants, and algae to sapling trees—we show that metabolism displays a striking degree of homeostasis across all of life. *******www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2572558/ Also of interest is that a cell apparently seems to be successfully designed along the very stringent guidelines laid out by Landauer's principle of 'reversible computation' in order to achieve such amazing energy efficiency, something man has yet to accomplish in any meaningful way for computers: Notes on Landauer’s principle, reversible computation, and Maxwell’s Demon - Charles H. Bennett Excerpt: Of course, in practice, almost all data processing is done on macroscopic apparatus, dissipating macroscopic amounts of energy far in excess of what would be required by Landauer’s principle. Nevertheless, some stages of biomolecular information processing, such as transcription of DNA to RNA, appear to be accomplished by chemical reactions that are reversible not only in principle but in practice.,,,, *******www.hep.princeton.edu/~mcdonald/examples/QM/bennett_shpmp_34_501_03.pdf Further quotes on the unmatched complexity of the cell: “Each cell with genetic information, from bacteria to man, consists of artificial languages and their decoding systems, memory banks for information storage and retrieval, elegant control systems regulating the automated assembly of parts and components, error fail-safe and proof-reading devices utilized for quality control, assembly processes involving the principle of prefabrication and modular construction and a capacity not equaled in any of our most advanced machines, for it would be capable of replicating its entire structure within a matter of a few hours" Geneticist Michael Denton PhD. Evolution: A Theory In Crisis pg. 329 "To grasp the reality of life as it has been revealed by molecular biology, we must first magnify a cell a thousand million times until it is 20 kilometers in diameter and resembles a giant airship large enough to cover a great city like London or New York. What we would see then would be an object of unparalleled complexity,...we would find ourselves in a world of supreme technology and bewildering complexity." Geneticist Michael Denton PhD., Evolution: A Theory In Crisis, pg.328 Building a Cell: Staggering Complexity: - Feb. 2010 Excerpt: “All organisms, from bacteria to humans, face the daunting task of replicating, packaging and segregating up to two metres (about 6 x 10^9 base pairs) of DNA when each cell divides,” “,,,the segregation machinery must function with far greater accuracy than man-made machines and with an exquisitely soft touch to prevent the DNA strands from breaking.” Bloom and Joglekar talked “machine language” over and over. The cell has specialized machines for all kinds of tasks: segregation machines, packaging machines, elaborate machines, streamlined machines, protein translocation machines, DNA-processing machines, DNA-translocation machines, robust macromolecular machines, accurate machines, ratchets, translocation pumps, mitotic spindles, DNA springs, coupling devices, and more. The authors struggle to “understand how these remarkable machines function with such exquisite accuracy.” *******www.creationsafaris****/crev201002.htm#20100202a Here is a good article that came out in GN magazine in Nov. 2009: 10 Ways Darwin Got It Wrong Excerpt: As molecular biologist Jonathan Wells and mathematician William Dembski point out: “It’s true that eukaryotic cells are the most complicated cells we know. But the simplest life forms we know, the prokaryotic cells (such as bacteria, which lack a nucleus), are themselves immensely complex.,,, There is no evidence whatsoever of earlier, more primitive life forms from which prokaryotes might have evolved” (How to Be an Intellectually Fulfilled Atheist (or Not), 2008, p. 4). These authors then mention what these two types of cells share in terms of complexity: • Information processing, storage and retrieval. • Artificial languages and their decoding systems. • Error detection, correction and proofreading devices for quality control. • Digital data-embedding technology. • Transportation and distribution systems. • Automated parcel addressing (similar to zip codes and UPS labels). • Assembly processes employing pre-fabrication and modular construction. • Self-reproducing robotic manufacturing plants. So it turns out that cells are far more complex and sophisticated than Darwin could have conceived of. How did mere chance produce this, when even human planning and engineering cannot? *******www.gnmagazine****/issues/gn85/10-ways-darwin-wrong.htm There simply is no "simple life" on earth as materialism had presumed - even the well known single celled amoeba has the complexity of the city of London and reproduces that complexity in only 20 minutes. The inner life of a cell - Harvard University - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=mbcWGU8fpxA User's guide to the video *******sparkleberrysprings****/innerlifeofcell.html Here is a fairly simple to understand basic overview of the cell: How the Body Works: The Cell - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=NiiLS_ovLwM Map Of Major Metabolic Pathways In A Cell - Diagram *******www.sigmaaldrich****/img/assets/4202/MetabolicPathways_6_17_04_.pdf Metabolism: A Cascade of Design Excerpt: A team of biological and chemical engineers wanted to understand just how robust metabolic pathways are. To gain this insight, the researchers compared how far the errors cascade in pathways found in a variety of single-celled organisms with errors in randomly generated metabolic pathways. They learned that when defects occur in the cell’s metabolic pathways, they cascade much shorter distances than when errors occur in random metabolic routes. Thus, it appears that metabolic pathways in nature are highly optimized and unusually robust, demonstrating that metabolic networks in the protoplasm are not haphazardly arranged but highly organized. *******www.reasons****/metabolism-cascade-design Making the Case for Intelligent Design More Robust Excerpt: ,,, In other words, metabolic pathways are optimized to withstand inevitable concentration changes of metabolites. *******www.reasons****/making-case-intelligent-design-more-robust Wonders of the Cell - 2008 - Christopher Wayne Ashcraft - video *******video.google****/videoplay?docid=-509988235357380896 Primary Cilium As Cellular 'GPS System' Crucial To Wound Repair Excerpt: The primary cilium, the solitary, antenna-like structure that studs the outer surfaces of virtually all human cells, orient cells to move in the right direction and at the speed needed to heal wounds, much like a Global Positioning System helps ships navigate to their destinations. "What we are dealing with is a physiological analogy to the GPS system with a coupled autopilot that coordinates air traffic or tankers on open sea," *******www.sciencedaily****/releases/2008/12/081217190330.htm Mere Biochemistry: Cell Division Involves Thousands of Complex, Interacting Parts - September 2010 *******www.creationsafaris****/crev201009.htm#20100925a Astonishingly, actual motors, which far surpass man-made motors in 'engineering parameters', are now being found inside 'simple cells'. Articles and Videos on Molecular Motors *******docs.google****/Doc?docid=0AYmaSrBPNEmGZGM4ejY3d3pfMzlkNjYydmRkZw&hl=en Michael Behe - Life Reeks Of Design - 2010 - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/5066181 And in spite of the fact of finding molecular motors permeating the simplest of bacterial life, there are no detailed Darwinian accounts for the evolution of even one such motor or system. "There are no detailed Darwinian accounts for the evolution of any fundamental biochemical or cellular system only a variety of wishful speculations. It is remarkable that Darwinism is accepted as a satisfactory explanation of such a vast subject." James Shapiro - Molecular Biologist The following expert doesn't even hide his very unscientific preconceived philosophical bias against intelligent design,,, ‘We should reject, as a matter of principle, the substitution of intelligent design for the dialogue of chance and necessity,,, Yet at the same time the same expert readily admits that neo-Darwinism has ZERO evidence for the chance and necessity of material processes producing any cellular system whatsoever,,, ,,,we must concede that there are presently no detailed Darwinian accounts of the evolution of any biochemical or cellular system, only a variety of wishful speculations.’ Franklin M. Harold,* 2001. The way of the cell: molecules, organisms and the order of life, Oxford University Press, New York, p. 205. *Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry, Colorado State University, USA Michael Behe - No Scientific Literature For Evolution of Any Irreducibly Complex Molecular Machines *******www.metacafe****/watch/5302950/ “The response I have received from repeating Behe's claim about the evolutionary literature, which simply brings out the point being made implicitly by many others, such as Chris Dutton and so on, is that I obviously have not read the right books. There are, I am sure, evolutionists who have described how the transitions in question could have occurred.” And he continues, “When I ask in which books I can find these discussions, however, I either get no answer or else some titles that, upon examination, do not, in fact, contain the promised accounts. That such accounts exist seems to be something that is widely known, but I have yet to encounter anyone who knows where they exist.” David Ray Griffin - retired professor of philosophy of religion and theology What I find very persuasive, to the suggestion that the universe was designed with life in mind, is that physicists find many processes in a cell operate at the 'near optimal' capacities allowed in any physical system: William Bialek - Professor Of Physics - Princeton University: Excerpt: "A central theme in my research is an appreciation for how well things “work” in biological systems. It is, after all, some notion of functional behavior that distinguishes life from inanimate matter, and it is a challenge to quantify this functionality in a language that parallels our characterization of other physical systems. Strikingly, when we do this (and there are not so many cases where it has been done!), the performance of biological systems often approaches some limits set by basic physical principles. While it is popular to view biological mechanisms as an historical record of evolutionary and developmental compromises, these observations on functional performance point toward a very different view of life as having selected a set of near optimal mechanisms for its most crucial tasks.,,,The idea of performance near the physical limits crosses many levels of biological organization, from single molecules to cells to perception and learning in the brain,,,," *******www.princeton.edu/~wbialek/wbialek.html Physicists Finding Perfection… in Biology — June 1st, 2009 by Biologic Staff Excerpt: "biological processes tend to be optimal in cases where this can be tested." *******biologicinstitute****/2009/06/01/physicists-finding-perfection-in-biology/ Also of note: There is a fairly substantial economic payoff to be had for presupposing superior 'Intelligent Design' in life, as is testified to by the burgeoning field of Biomimicry: Biomimicry - Superior Designs That Were Found In Life *******docs.google****/Doc?docid=0AYmaSrBPNEmGZGM4ejY3d3pfNDBkZ3Nwcnd0Yw&hl=en Intelligent Design - The Anthropic Hypothesis *******lettherebelight-77.blogspot****/2009/10/intelligent-design-anthropic-hypothesis_19.html
8 Jan 2011
1927
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Animators website: Virtual Cell Animation Collection *******vcell.ndsu.edu/animations/home.htm The Cell as a Collection of Protein Machines "We have always underestimated cells. Undoubtedly we still do today,,, Indeed, the entire cell can be viewed as a factory that contains an elaborate network of interlocking assembly lines, each which is composed of a set of large protein machines." Bruce Alberts: Former President, National Academy of Sciences; *******www.imbb.forth.gr/people/aeconomou/documents/Alberts98.pdf Molecular Machine - Nuclear Pore Complex - Stephen C. Meyer - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4261990/ Simulations reveal new information about the gateway to the cell nucleus Excerpt: “There are whole machines in living cells that are made of hundreds or thousands of proteins,” says Schulten, “and the nuclear pore is one of those systems. It’s actually one of the most magnificent systems in the cell.”,,,Hundreds to thousands of NPCs are embedded in the nuclear envelope of each cell,"... *******www.psc.edu/science/2006/schulten/ Nuclear pore: Excerpt: Nuclear pores allow the transport of water-soluble molecules across the nuclear envelope. This transport includes RNA and ribosomes moving from nucleus to the cytoplasm and proteins (such as DNA polymerase and lamins), carbohydrates, signal molecules and lipids moving into the nucleus. It is notable that the nuclear pore complex (NPC) can actively conduct 1000 translocations per complex per second. *******en.wikipedia****/wiki/Nuclear_pore#Transport_through_the_nuclear_pore_complex The DNA Code - Solid Scientific Proof Of Intelligent Design - Perry Marshall - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4060532 "A code system is always the result of a mental process (it requires an intelligent origin or inventor). It should be emphasized that matter as such is unable to generate any code. All experiences indicate that a thinking being voluntarily exercising his own free will, cognition, and creativity, is required. ,,,there is no known law of nature and no known sequence of events which can cause information to originate by itself in matter. Werner Gitt 1997 In The Beginning Was Information pp. 64-67, 79, 107." (The retired Dr Gitt was a director and professor at the German Federal Institute of Physics and Technology (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig), the Head of the Department of Information Technology.) The coding system used for living beings is optimal from an engineering standpoint. Werner Gitt - In The Beginning Was Information - p. 95 Collective evolution and the genetic code - 2006: Excerpt: The genetic code could well be optimized to a greater extent than anything else in biology and yet is generally regarded as the biological element least capable of evolving. *******www.pnas****/content/103/28/10696.full Here, we show that the universal genetic code can efficiently carry arbitrary parallel codes much better than the vast majority of other possible genetic codes.... the present findings support the view that protein-coding regions can carry abundant parallel codes. *******genome.cshlp****/content/17/4/405.full The data compression of some stretches of human DNA is estimated to be up to 12 codes thick (12 different ways of DNA transcription) (Trifonov, 1989). (This is well beyond the complexity of any computer code ever written by man). John Sanford - Genetic Entropy Do you believe Richard Dawkins exists? Excerpt: DNA is the best information storage mechanism known to man. A single pinhead of DNA contains as much information as could be stored on 2 million two-terabyte hard drives. *******creation****/does-dawkins-exist Journey Inside The Cell (DNA to RNA to Protein)- Stephen Meyer - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=1fiJupfbSpg BioVisions - The Inner Life of the Cell - video *******vimeo****/14691840 User's guide to the video *******sparkleberrysprings****/innerlifeofcell.html Honors to Researchers Who Probed Atomic Structure of Ribosomes - Robert F. Service Excerpt: "The ribosome’s dance, however, is more like a grand ballet, with dozens of ribosomal proteins and subunits pirouetting with every step while other key biomolecules leap in, carrying other dancers needed to complete the act.” *******www.creationsafaris****/crev200910.htm#20091015a The Ribosome: Perfectionist Protein-maker Trashes Errors Excerpt: The enzyme machine that translates a cell's DNA code into the proteins of life is nothing if not an editorial perfectionist...the ribosome exerts far tighter quality control than anyone ever suspected over its precious protein products... To their further surprise, the ribosome lets go of error-laden proteins 10,000 times faster than it would normally release error-free proteins, a rate of destruction that Green says is "shocking" and reveals just how much of a stickler the ribosome is about high-fidelity protein synthesis. *******www.sciencedaily****/releases/2009/01/090107134529.htm RNA: Protein Regulators Are Themselves Regulated “What was formerly conceived of as a direct, straightforward pathway is gradually turning out to be a dense network of regulatory mechanisms: genes are not simply translated into proteins via mRNA (messenger RNA). MicroRNAs control the translation of mRNAs (messenger RNAs) into proteins, and proteins in turn regulate the microRNAs at various levels.” *******www.sciencedaily****/releases/2009/09/090910084147.htm The Case Against a Darwinian Origin of Protein Folds - Douglas Axe - 2010 Excerpt Pg. 11: "Based on analysis of the genomes of 447 bacterial species, the projected number of different domain structures per species averages 991. Comparing this to the number of pathways by which metabolic processes are carried out, which is around 263 for E. coli, provides a rough figure of three or four new domain folds being needed, on average, for every new metabolic pathway. In order to accomplish this successfully, an evolutionary search would need to be capable of locating sequences that amount to anything from one in 10^159 to one in 10^308 possibilities, something the neo-Darwinian model falls short of by a very wide margin." *******bio-complexity****/ojs/index.php/main/article/view/BIO-C.2010.1 The Case Against a Darwinian Origin of Protein Folds - Douglas Axe, Jay Richards - audio *******intelligentdesign.podomatic****/player/web/2010-05-03T11_09_03-07_00 A Few Hundred Thousand Computers vs. A Single Protein Molecule - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4018233 "The likelihood of developing two binding sites in a protein complex would be the square of the probability of developing one: a double CCC (chloroquine complexity cluster), 10^20 times 10^20, which is 10^40. There have likely been fewer than 10^40 cells in the entire world in the past 4 billion years, so the odds are against a single event of this variety (just 2 binding sites being generated by accident) in the history of life. It is biologically unreasonable." Michael J. Behe PhD. (from page 146 of his book "Edge of Evolution") Nature Paper,, Finds Darwinian Processes Lacking - Michael Behe - Oct. 2009 Excerpt: Now, thanks to the work of Bridgham et al (2009), even such apparently minor switches in structure and function (of a protein to its supposed ancestral form) are shown to be quite problematic. It seems Darwinian processes can’t manage to do even as much as I had thought. (which was 1 in 10^40 for just 2 binding sites) *******www.evolutionnews****/2009/10/nature_paper_finally_reaches_t.html Mitochondria - Molecular Machine - Powerhouse Of The Cell - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/5510941/ Evolution Vs ATP Synthase - Molecular Machine - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4012706/ The Cell - A World Of Complexity Darwin Never Dreamed Of - Donald E. Johnson - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4139390 Systems biology: Untangling the protein web - July 2009 Excerpt: Vidal thinks that technological improvements — especially in nanotechnology, to generate more data, and microscopy, to explore interaction inside cells, along with increased computer power — are required to push systems biology forward. "Combine all this and you can start to think that maybe some of the information flow can be captured," he says. But when it comes to figuring out the best way to explore information flow in cells, Tyers jokes that it is like comparing different degrees of infinity. "The interesting point coming out of all these studies is how complex these systems are — the different feedback loops and how they cross-regulate each other and adapt to perturbations are only just becoming apparent," he says. "The simple pathway models are a gross oversimplification of what is actually happening." *******www.nature****/nature/journal/v460/n7253/full/460415a.html 10 Ways Darwin Got It Wrong Excerpt: As molecular biologist Jonathan Wells and mathematician William Dembski point out: “It’s true that eukaryotic cells are the most complicated cells we know. But the simplest life forms we know, the prokaryotic cells (such as bacteria, which lack a nucleus), are themselves immensely complex.,,, There is no evidence whatsoever of earlier, more primitive life forms from which prokaryotes might have evolved” (How to Be an Intellectually Fulfilled Atheist (or Not), 2008, p. 4). These authors then mention what these two types of cells share in terms of complexity: • Information processing, storage and retrieval. • Artificial languages and their decoding systems. • Error detection, correction and proofreading devices for quality control. • Digital data-embedding technology. • Transportation and distribution systems. • Automated parcel addressing (similar to zip codes and UPS labels). • Assembly processes employing pre-fabrication and modular construction. • Self-reproducing robotic manufacturing plants. So it turns out that cells are far more complex and sophisticated than Darwin could have conceived of. How did mere chance produce this, when even human planning and engineering cannot? *******www.gnmagazine****/issues/gn85/10-ways-darwin-wrong.htm Quantum Mechanics at Work in Photosynthesis: Algae Familiar With These Processes for Nearly Two Billion Years - Feb. 2010 Excerpt: "We were astonished to find clear evidence of long-lived quantum mechanical states involved in moving the energy. Our result suggests that the energy of absorbed light resides in two places at once -- a quantum superposition state, or coherence -- and such a state lies at the heart of quantum mechanical theory.",,, "It suggests that algae knew about quantum mechanics nearly two billion years before humans," says Scholes. *******www.sciencedaily****/releases/2010/02/100203131356.htm Quantum Information/Entanglement In DNA & Protein Folding - short video *******www.metacafe****/watch/5936605/ Further evidence that quantum entanglement/information is found throughout entire protein structures: *******www.uncommondescent****/intelligent-design/rescue-proteins-leave-evolutionists-in-the-ditch/#comment-373214 It is very interesting to note that quantum entanglement, which conclusively demonstrates that ‘information’ is completely transcendent of any time and space constraints (Alain Aspect), should be found in molecular biology, for how can quantum entanglement, in molecular biology, possibly be explained by the materialistic framework of neo-Darwinism, a framework which is predicated on the presupposition of being constrained by time and space, when Alain Aspect and company falsified the validity of local realism (reductive materialism) in the first place with quantum entanglement? It is simply ludicrous to appeal to the materialistic framework, which undergirds the entire neo-Darwinian framework, that has been falsified by the very same quantum entanglement effect that one is seeking an explanation to! To give a coherent explanation for an effect that is shown to be completely independent of any time and space constraints one is forced to appeal to a cause that is itself not limited to time and space! Probability arguments, which have been a staple of the arguments against neo-Darwinism, simply do not apply! Further notes: The ‘Fourth Dimension’ Of Living Systems ********docs.google****/document/pub?id=1Gs_qvlM8-7bFwl9rZUB9vS6SZgLH17eOZdT4UbPoy0Y Astonishingly, actual motors, which far surpass man-made motors in 'engineering parameters', are now being found inside 'simple cells'. Articles and Videos on Molecular Motors/Machines *******docs.google****/Doc?docid=0AYmaSrBPNEmGZGM4ejY3d3pfMzlkNjYydmRkZw&hl=en Michael Behe - Life Reeks Of Design - 2010 - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/5066181 And in spite of the fact of finding molecular motors permeating the simplest of bacterial life, there are no detailed Darwinian accounts for the evolution of even one such motor or system. "There are no detailed Darwinian accounts for the evolution of any fundamental biochemical or cellular system only a variety of wishful speculations. It is remarkable that Darwinism is accepted as a satisfactory explanation of such a vast subject." James Shapiro - Molecular Biologist Intelligent Design - The Anthropic Hypothesis *******lettherebelight-77.blogspot****/2009/10/intelligent-design-anthropic-hypothesis_19.html
11 Mar 2011
1571
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10:51
READ DESCRIPTION: Please watch the video in its entirety- I know it starts off slow and technical. I discuss the actual, oft unmentioned reason every scientist accepts evolution. Ignorance is no longer an excuse. Special thanks to Greenman3610 for providing the audio track in the background. If you're remotely interested in global warming, subscribing to him is not an option, its a requirement. -The C14 tree/etc example is just to show the strengths of independent methods. Embryology video: *******www.youtube****/watch?v=LnTGYdasDu0 Transitional Fossils: *******www.youtube****/watch?v=XUcB_HiCKnM Sources: Gilbert, S. F. (1997) Developmental Biology. Fifth edition. Sinauer Associates. Carroll, R. L. (1988) Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. New York, W. H. Freeman and Co. Futuyma, D. (1998) Evolutionary Biology. Third edition. Sunderland, Mass., Sinauer Associates. Gould, S. J. (1990) "An earful of jaw." Natural History 3: 12-23. Kardong, K. V. (2002) Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution. Third ed. New York: McGraw Hill. Rubin, G. M. et al. (2000) "Comparative Genomics of the Eukaryotes." Science 287: 2204-2218. [PubMed] Schmid, K. J., and Tautz, D. (1997) "A screen for fast evolving genes from Drosophila." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 94: 9746-9750. *******www.pnas****/cgi/content/full/94/18/9746 Sereno, P. C. (1999) "The Evolution of Dinosaurs." Science 284: 2137-2147. [PubMed] Smit, A. F. A. (1996) "The origin of interspersed repeats in the human genome." Current Opinion in Genetics and Development 6: 743-748. [PubMed] Thornhill, R. H., and Ussery, D. W. (2000) "A classification of possible routes of Darwinian evolution." Journal of Theoretical Biology 203: 111-116. [PubMed] Voet, D., and Voet, J. (1995) Biochemistry. New York, John Wiley and Sons. Williams, G. C. (1992) Natural Selection: Domains, Levels, and Challenges. New York, Oxford University Press. Scarpulla, R. C., and Nye, S. H. (1986) "Functional expression of rat cytochrome c in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae." Proc Natl Acad Sci 83: 6352-6. [PubMed] Shimamura, M., et al. (1997) "Molecular evidence from retroposons that whales form a clade within even-toed ungulates." Nature 388: 666. [PubMed] Smit, A. F. A. (1996) "The origin of interspersed repeats in the human genome." Current Opinion in Genetics and Development 6: 743-748. [PubMed] Stewart, C. B. and Disotell, T. R. (1998) "Primate evolution - in and out of Africa." Current Biology 8: R582-588. [PubMed] Svensson, A. C., N. Setterblad, et al. (1995) "Primate DRB genes from the DR3 and DR8 haplotypes contain ERV9 LTR elements at identical positions." Immunogenetics 41: 74. [PubMed] Sverdlov, E. D. (2000) "Retroviruses and primate evolution." BioEssays 22: 161-171. [PubMed]
26 Feb 2010
861
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9:55
Entire video: Refuting Darwinian Evolution - Jon Rittenhouse - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=sLPk4IJw_E8 What evidence is found for the first life on earth? - article *******lettherebelight-77.blogspot****/2012/02/what-evidence-is-found-for-first-life.html Dean Kenyon, who was a leading Origin Of Life researcher as well as a college textbook author on the subject in the 1970s, admitted after years of extensive research: "We have not the slightest chance for the chemical evolutionary origin of even the simplest of cells". Origin Of Life? - Probability Of Protein And The Information Of DNA - Dean Kenyon - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=9VhR2BHhxeo Programming of Life - Probability of a Cell Evolving - video *******www.youtube****/user/Programmingoflife#p/c/AFDF33F11E2FB840/9/nyTUSe99z6o Probability Of A Protein and First Living Cell - Chris Ashcraft - video (notes in description) *******vimeo****/31536455 The Origin of Life - Lecture On Probability - John Walton - Professor Of Chemistry - short video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4012749 Protein Molecules and "Simple" Cells - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=uFNwStNhHIc Evolution: Possible or Impossible? - free e-book (with plenty of examples from math) - by Dr. James F. Coppedge *******creationsafaris****/epoi_toc.htm Stephen Meyer - Proteins by Design - Doing The Math - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/6332250/ Centre for Intelligent Design Lecture 2011 by Stephen Meyer on 'Signature in the Cell' - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=NbluTDb1Nfs Signature in the Cell - Book Review - Ken Peterson Excerpt: If we assume some minimally complex cell requires 250 different proteins then the probability of this arrangement happening purely by chance is one in 10 to the 164th multiplied by itself 250 times or one in 10 to the 41,000th power. *******www.spectrummagazine****/reviews/book_reviews/2009/10/06/signature_cell In fact years ago Fred Hoyle arrived at approximately the same number, one chance in 10^40,000, for life spontaneously arising. From this number, Fred Hoyle compared the random emergence of the simplest bacterium on earth to the likelihood “a tornado sweeping through a junkyard might assemble a Boeing 747 therein”. Fred Hoyle also compared the chance of obtaining just one single functioning protein molecule, by chance combination of amino acids, to a solar system packed full of blind men solving Rubik’s Cube simultaneously. Professor Harold Morowitz shows the Origin of Life 'problem' escalates dramatically over the 1 in 10^40,000 figure when working from a thermodynamic perspective,: "The probability for the chance of formation of the smallest, simplest form of living organism known is 1 in 10^340,000,000. This number is 10 to the 340 millionth power! The size of this figure is truly staggering since there is only supposed to be approximately 10^80 (10 to the 80th power) electrons in the whole universe!" (Professor Harold Morowitz, Energy Flow In Biology pg. 99, Biophysicist of George Mason University) Dr. Don Johnson lays out some of the probabilities for life in this following video: Probabilities Of Life - Don Johnson PhD. - 38 minute mark of video a typical functional protein - 1 part in 10^175 the required enzymes for life - 1 part in 10^40,000 a living self replicating cell - 1 part in 10^340,000,000 *******www.vimeo****/11706014 Increasing Genomic Information - Don Johnson - video Excerpt: Forming the simplest life is 10^300,000,000 more likely that forming a human life *******www.youtube****/watch?v=VYFq9mpCT6c Dr. Morowitz did another probability calculation working from the thermodynamic perspective with a already existing cell and came up with this number: DID LIFE START BY CHANCE? Excerpt: Molecular biophysicist, Horold Morowitz (Yale University), calculated the odds of life beginning under natural conditions (spontaneous generation). He calculated, if one were to take the simplest living cell and break every chemical bond within it, the odds that the cell would reassemble under ideal natural conditions (the best possible chemical environment) would be one chance in 10^100,000,000,000. You will have probably have trouble imagining a number so large, so Hugh Ross provides us with the following example. If all the matter in the Universe was converted into building blocks of life, and if assembly of these building blocks were attempted once a microsecond for the entire age of the universe. Then instead of the odds being 1 in 10^100,000,000,000, they would be 1 in 10^99,999,999,916 (also of note: 1 with 100 billion zeros following would fill approx. 20,000 encyclopedias) *******members.tripod****/~Black_J/chance.html Punctured cell will never reassemble - Jonathan Wells - 2:40 mark of video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=WKoiivfe_mo The Humpty-Dumpty Effect: A Revolutionary Paper with Far-Reaching Implications - Paul Nelson - October 23, 2012 Excerpt: Tompa and Rose calculate the "total number of possible distinct patterns of interactions," using yeast, a unicellular eukaryote, as their model system; this "total number" is the size of the space that must be searched. With approximately 4,500 proteins in yeast, the interactome search space "is on the order of 10^7200, an unimaginably large number," they write -- but "more realistic" estimates, they continue, are "yet more complicated." Proteins present many possible surfaces for chemical interaction. "In all," argue Tompa and Rose, "an average protein would have approximately 3540 distinguishable interfaces," and if one uses this number for the interactome space calculation, the result is 10 followed by the exponent 7.9 x 10^10.,,, the numbers preclude formation of a functional interactome (of 'simple' life) by trial and error,, within any meaningful span of time. This numerical exercise...is tantamount to a proof that the cell does not organize by random collisions of its interacting constituents. (i.e. that life did not arise, nor operate, by chance!) *******www.evolutionnews****/2012/10/a_revolutionary065521.html Also of interest is the information content that is derived in a cell when working from a thermodynamic perspective: “a one-celled bacterium, e. coli, is estimated to contain the equivalent of 100 million pages of Encyclopedia Britannica. Expressed in information in science jargon, this would be the same as 10^12 bits of information. In comparison, the total writings from classical Greek Civilization is only 10^9 bits, and the largest libraries in the world – The British Museum, Oxford Bodleian Library, New York Public Library, Harvard Widenier Library, and the Moscow Lenin Library – have about 10 million volumes or 10^12 bits.” – R. C. Wysong 'The information content of a simple cell has been estimated as around 10^12 bits, comparable to about a hundred million pages of the Encyclopedia Britannica." Carl Sagan, "Life" in Encyclopedia Britannica: Macropaedia (1974 ed.), pp. 893-894 of note: The 10^12 bits of information number for a bacterium is derived from entropic considerations, which is, due to the tightly integrated relationship between information and entropy, considered the most accurate measure of the transcendent quantum information/entanglement constraining a 'simple' life form to be so far out of thermodynamic equilibrium. "Is there a real connection between entropy in physics and the entropy of information? ....The equations of information theory and the second law are the same, suggesting that the idea of entropy is something fundamental..." Siegfried, Dallas Morning News, 5/14/90, [Quotes Robert W. Lucky, Ex. Director of Research, AT&T, Bell Laboratories & John A. Wheeler, of Princeton & Univ. of TX, Austin] For calculations, from the thermodynamic perspective, please see the following site: Moleular Biophysics – Information theory. Relation between information and entropy: - Setlow-Pollard, Ed. Addison Wesley Excerpt: Linschitz gave the figure 9.3 x 10^12 cal/deg or 9.3 x 10^12 x 4.2 joules/deg for the entropy of a bacterial cell. Using the relation H = S/(k In 2), we find that the information content is 4 x 10^12 bits. Morowitz' deduction from the work of Bayne-Jones and Rhees gives the lower value of 5.6 x 10^11 bits, which is still in the neighborhood of 10^12 bits. Thus two quite different approaches give rather concordant figures. *******www.astroscu.unam.mx/~angel/tsb/molecular.htm Ilya Prigogine was an eminent chemist and physicist who received two Nobel Prizes in chemistry. Regarding the probability of life originating by accident, he said: “The statistical probability that organic structures and the most precisely harmonized reactions that typify living organisms would be generated by accident, is zero.” Ilya Prigogine, Gregoire Nicolis, and Agnes Babloyantz, Physics Today 25, pp. 23-28. *******en.wikiquote****/wiki/Western_Thought_on_Creation Quotes of Note: The Theist holds the Intellectual High-Ground - March 2011 Excerpt: To get a range on the enormous challenges involved in bridging the gaping chasm between non-life and life, consider the following: “The difference between a mixture of simple chemicals and a bacterium, is much more profound than the gulf between a bacterium and an elephant.” (Dr. Robert Shapiro, Professor Emeritus of Chemistry, NYU) *******www.faithfulnews****/contents/view_content2/49631/rabbi-moshe-averick-the-theist-holds-the-intellectual-high-ground-apologetics-christian-apologetics-defending-gospel Scientists Prove Again that Life is the Result of Intelligent Design - Rabbi Moshe Averick - August 2011 Excerpt: “To go from bacterium to people is less of a step than to go from a mixture of amino acids to a bacterium.” - Dr. Lynn Margulis *******www.algemeiner****/2011/08/17/scientists-prove-again-that-life-is-the-result-of-intelligent-design/ Stephen Meyer - The Scientific Basis for the Intelligent Design Inference - video *******vimeo****/32148403
20 Jan 2013
1244
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10:00
I like this following paper for though it is materialistic in its outlook at least Eugene Koonin, unlike many materialists, is brutally honest with the evidence we now have. The Biological Big Bang model for the major transitions in evolution - Eugene V Koonin - Background: "Major transitions in biological evolution show the same pattern of sudden emergence of diverse forms at a new level of complexity. The relationships between major groups within an emergent new class of biological entities are hard to decipher and do not seem to fit the tree pattern that, following Darwin's original proposal, remains the dominant description of biological evolution. The cases in point include the origin of complex RNA molecules and protein folds; major groups of viruses; archaea and bacteria, and the principal lineages within each of these prokaryotic domains; eukaryotic supergroups; and animal phyla. In each of these pivotal nexuses in life's history, the principal "types" seem to appear rapidly and fully equipped with the signature features of the respective new level of biological organization. No intermediate "grades" or intermediate forms between different types are detectable; *******www.biology-direct****/content/2/1/21 Biological Big Bangs - Origin Of Life and Cambrian - Dr. Fazale Rana - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4284466 It should be noted that Koonin tries to account for the origination of the massive amounts of functional information, required for the Cambrian Explosion, and other “explosions”, by trying to access an “unelucidated and undirected” mechanism of Quantum Mechanics called ‘Many Worlds’. Besides Koonin ignoring the fact that Quantum Events, on a whole, are strictly restricted to the transcendent universal laws/constants of the universe, including, and especially, the second law of thermodynamics, for as far back in time in the universe as we can see, it is also fair to note, in criticism to Koonin’s scenario, that appealing to the undirected infinite probabilistic resource, of the quantum mechanics of the Many Worlds scenario, actually greatly increases the amount of totally chaotic information one would expect to see generated “randomly” in the fossil record. Though Koonin is correct to recognize that the infinite probabilistic resource of “Quantum Mechanic information waves” does not absolutely preclude the sudden appearance of massive amounts of functional information in the fossil record, he is very incorrect to disregard the “Logos” of John 1:1 needed to correctly specify the “controlled mechanism of implementation” for the massive amounts of complex functional and specified information witnessed abruptly and mysteriously appearing in the fossil record. i.e. he must sufficiently account for the “cause” for the “effect” he wants to explain. Atheism In Crisis - The Absurdity Of The Multiverse - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4227733 “The multiverse idea rests on assumptions that would be laughed out of town if they came from a religious text.” Gregg Easterbrook "Every solution to the equations of general relativity guarantees the existence of a singular boundary for space and time in the past."(Hawking, Penrose, Ellis) - 1970 *******www.leaderu****/real/ri9404/bigbang.html "The prediction of the standard model that the universe began to exist remains today as secure as ever—indeed, more secure, in light of the Borde-Guth-Vilenkin theorem and that prediction’s corroboration by the repeated and often imaginative attempts to falsify it. The person who believes that the universe began to exist remains solidly and comfortably within mainstream science." - William Lane Craig *******www.reasonablefaith****/site/News2?page=NewsArticle&id=6115 Intelligent Design - The Anthropic Hypothesis *******lettherebelight-77.blogspot****/2009/10/intelligent-design-anthropic-hypothesis_19.html
21 Jun 2010
870
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9:17
*******www.thinkwell****/student/product/biologyap?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=promoted_video&utm_campaign=plant_and_animal_cell_overview Save 20% on all Thinkwell courses! This video is a preview from Thinkwell's AP Biology series. For 20% off, use "PlantCells" during check out
27 Jan 2010
627
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11:58
nimphphlown internet search that wrapper !!,,on!!,, stickam****/rechacked DNA-RNA strooi ecologische factoren normale stofwisselingsproces dispenceries in cel landschapsinrichting pharmocology pil geld besparen stad rijkdommen voedingsstoffen realiteit percentage van de moleculaire exschange laesies leven atonomy per cel per dag BREACK dans hip hop formaten vormt 6 miljard genoom gebaseerde paar scheuten gerepareerd eargazims ons meer kritische tumor suppressorgenen lessions nimphphlown lichaam loterij taal dansen vermogen om haar functie gezondheid talen goed merkbaar betere vaardigheden om te leren hoe om te genieten van het moment zsm waarschijnlijkheid vorming exsightable chypher internationale afzuigkappen morethan101aka's youtube havens passeren!,, DNA environmental rna sprinkle factors normal metabolic process dispenceries inside cell landscaping pharmocology pill money saving town resources occuring nutrient realities rate of molecular exschange life atonomy lesions per cell per day breack dance hip hop formats constitutes genome's 6 billion based pair shoots repaired eargazims more ons critical tumor suppressor genes lessions nimphphlown body lottery language dancing ability to carry out its function health languages properly appreciably increased skills to learn how to enjoy the moment asap likelihood formation exsightable chypher international hoods morethan101aka'syoutube pass ports !!,, The vast majority of DNA damage affects the primary structure of the double helix; that is, the bases themselves are chemically modified. These modifications can in turn disrupt the molecules' regular helical structure by introducing non-native chemical bonds or bulky adducts that do not fit in the standard double helix. Unlike proteins and RNA, DNA usually lacks tertiary structure and therefore damage or disturbance does not occur at that level. DNA is, however, supercoiled and wound around "packaging" proteins called histones (in eukaryotes), and both superstructures are vulnerable to the effects of DNA damage.
5 Dec 2009
189
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5:41
nimphphlown internet search that rapper !!,, stickam****/rechacked las células teamhuman2youtube reparación ADN general eucariótica detallan posiciones dentro núcleo verdaderas relaciones estado facilidad mitochondria. El ADN nuclear (nDNA) chromatin gazmical permanencias que soportan replicative salarios realidad de nutriente ciclo etapas se condensó "dulce de leche conjunto "onda ácida láctica lado el surffing estructura al pinchadiscos nymphphlown corporaciones los cromosomas íntimos conocidos crean mapa visiones zambullida división leyendo skillz alto conduce comp localizado terminado alrededor proteínas gustadas por cuenta hace levitar especies histones cruzing Siempre la célula inteligente whatevers necesite expresión para aliviar alientos de información genéticos codificara sexsecize dappa nDNA requirió envolturas toching el romance regional cromosómico seasional terapia de genes desenmarañada reasionable lenguaje corporal conformación que descansa se acurruca sugestions Mitochondrial atraction curessing morethan101aka's organelles doblamiento copias múltiples texting muesca fuertemente croch se asoció grande pro combinan escena nucleoid subproductos de especies de oxígeno reactivos adenosine triphosphate limpiando (ATP) oxidative phosphorylation pps muy ambiente creatine mtDNA juego enzima crítico nimphphlown protege wrighting ¡¡el trabajo que contraría toxicidad sacude bboy lolin superóxido dismutase prototyple propulsando cytoplasm vela que sanciona el anclaje orbital!!, teamhuman2youtube cells eukaryotic general DNA repair details locations inside nucleus real ease state relations mitochondria. Nuclear DNA (nDNA) chromatin gazmical stays enduring replicative stages cycle nutrient realities wages condensed "dulce de leche aggregate "sideways lactic acid wave surffing structures dj nymphphlown syndicates known intimate chromosomes create division dive visions map reading skillz high leads comp located wound up around bead-liked proteins levitates histones species cruzing Whenever whatevers clever cell needs expression ease genetic information breaths encoded sexsecize dappa nDNA required toching wrappers chromosomal regional romance seasional unravelled genes therapy reasionable resting conformation body language snuggle sugestions Mitochondrial atraction curessing morethan101aka's organelles flexing multiple copies texting notch tightly croch associated biG pro team nucleoid scene reactive oxygen species byproducts adenosine triphosphate cleaning (ATP) oxidative phosphorylation pp highly environment creatine mtDNA critical enzyme play nimphphlown screen wrighting work counteracting toxicity jerk bboy lolin superoxide dismutase prototyple propeling cytoplasm sail sanctioning orbital anchoring !!,, Distributed by Tubemogul.
5 Dec 2009
163
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5:43
Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the thee Animalia (also called Metazoa). The animal kingdom emerged as a basal clade within Apoikozoa as a sister of the choanoflagellates. Sponges are the most basal clade of animals. Animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later on in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs: they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance. Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion, about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates. Vertebrates have a backbone or spine (vertebral column), and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species. They include fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. The remaining animals are the invertebrates, which lack a backbone. These include molluscs (clams, oysters, octopuses, squid, snails); arthropods (millipedes, centipedes, insects, spiders, scorpions, crabs, lobsters, shrimp); annelids (earthworms, leeches), nematodes (filarial worms, hookworms), flatworms (tapeworms, liver flukes), cnidarians (jellyfish, sea anemones, corals), ctenophores (comb jellies), and sponges. The study of animals is called zoology.
30 Jan 2017
537
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