Biology is the natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms, including their physical and chemical structure, function, development and evolution. Modern biology is a vast field, composed of many branches. Despite the broad scope and the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. In general, biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation of new species. It is also understood that all organisms survive by consuming and transforming energy and by regulating their internal environment.
Sub-disciplines of biology are defined by the scale at which life is studied, the kinds of organisms studied, and the methods used to study them: biochemistry examines the rudimentary chemistry of life; molecular biology studies the complex interactions among biological molecules; cellular biology examines the basic building-block of all life, the cell; physiology examines the physical and chemical functions of tissues, organs, and organ systems; ecology examines how organisms interact in their environment; and evolutionary biology examines the processes that produced the diversity of life.
Ecology is the study of the distribution and abundance of living organisms, the interaction between them and their environment. An organism shares an environment that includes other organisms and biotic factors as well as local abiotic factors (non-living) such as climate and ecology. One reason that biological systems can be difficult to study is that so many different interactions with other organisms and the environment are possible, even on small scales. A microscopic bacterium responding to a local sugar gradient is responding to its environment as much as a lion searching for food in the African savanna. For any species, behaviors can be co-operative, competitive, parasitic, or symbiotic. by Royal Mentor
A weapon, arm, or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm to living beings, structures, or systems. Weapons are used to increase the efficacy and efficiency of activities such as hunting, crime, law enforcement, self-defense, and warfare. In a broader context, weapons may be construed to include anything used to gain a strategic, material or mental advantage over an adversary.
While just about any ordinary objects such as sticks, stones, cars, or pencils can be used as weapons, many are expressly designed for the purpose – ranging from simple implements such as clubs, swords and guns, to complicated modern intercontinental ballistic missiles, biological and cyberweapons. Something that has been re-purposed, converted, or enhanced to become a weapon of war is termed weaponized, such as a weaponized virus or weaponized lasers
The use of objects as weapons has been observed among chimpanzees, leading to speculation that early hominids first began to use weapons as early as five million years ago. However, this can not be confirmed using physical evidence because wooden clubs, spears, and unshaped stones would have left an ambiguous record. The earliest unambiguous weapons to be found are the Schöninger Spear: eight wooden throwing spears dated as being more than 300,000 years old. At the site of Nataruk in Turkana, Kenya, numerous human skeletons dating to 10,000 years ago may present evidence of major traumatic injuries to the head, neck, ribs, knees and hands, including obsidian projectiles still embedded in the bones, that might have been caused by arrows and clubs in the context of conflict between two hunter-gatherer groups, but this interpretation of the evidence of warfare at Nataruk has been challenged
Ancient weapons were evolutionary improvements of late neolithic implements, but then significant improvements in materials and crafting techniques created a series of revolutions in military
RML broadly defines weapon in videos
Modern humans (Homo sapiens, primarily ssp. Homo sapiens sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina, a branch of the tribe Hominini belonging to the family of great apes. They are characterized by erect posture and bipedal locomotion; high manual dexterity and heavy tool use compared to other animals; and a general trend toward larger, more complex brains and societies.
Early hominins—particularly the australopithecines, whose brains and anatomy are in many ways more similar to ancestral non-human apes—are less often referred to as "human" than hominins of the genus Homo. Several of these hominins used fire, occupied much of Eurasia, and gave rise to anatomically modern Homo sapiens in Africa about 200,000 years ago. They began to exhibit evidence of behavioral modernity around 50,000 years ago. In several waves of migration, anatomically modern humans ventured out of Africa and populated most of the world.
The spread of humans and their large and increasing population has had a profound impact on large areas of the environment and millions of native species worldwide. Advantages that explain this evolutionary success include a relatively larger brain with a particularly well-developed neocortex, prefrontal cortex and temporal lobes, which enable high levels of abstract reasoning, language, problem solving, sociality, and culture through social learning. Humans use tools to a much higher degree than any other animal, are the only extant species known to build fires and cook their food, and are the only extant species to clothe themselves and create and use numerous other technologies and arts.
Humans are uniquely adept at using systems of symbolic communication (such as language and art) for self-expression and the exchange of ideas, and for organizing themselves into purposeful groups. Humans create complex social structures composed of many cooperating competing groups.
Royal Mentor Lee suggest think and behave at top level.
Our education system is teaching evolutionary theory as fact, and known hoaxes perpetrated by evolutionist theory continue to permeate our educational systems, misleading students with information that is known to be fraudulent.
Learn about these and more in the "Incredible Creatures That Defy Evolution" DVD series at
A behind the scenes look at "Life's Story: The Reason for the Journey" and a clip from the breath-taking documentary.
From simple cells in the seas to fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and eventually humans; this we are told has been the evolutionary tree of life. So how does this theory fit in with all we see around us?
After thousands of years of observable evidence and advances in biological research, do Darwin's evolutionary ideas measure-up to the discoveries of modern science today?
Find this incredible documentary, "Life's Story: The Reason for the Journey", on DVD at
Me covering Paul Masvidal's epic solo from Evolutionary Sleeper.
Evolutionary Actuality is a theory based on the concept of change and its inevitability. Change is a progressive organic force that influences the progressive development of our human existence. This original work also proposes the creation an ideal governing model which is described as being the Equity Based Society. The Equity Based Society is an embodiment of the Evolutionary Actuality concept. The book also explores a phenomenon that is referred to as “Disjunctive Diversionary Interest”. Its impact has the effect of making our society or any society for that matter less democratic. The book makes the case for the Equity Based Society through the usage of statistical analysis and theory.
To learn more or order the book:
Richard Sternberg's website:
Waiting Longer for Two Mutations, Part 5 - Michael Behe
Excerpt: the appearance of a particular (beneficial) double mutation in humans would have an expected time of appearance of 216 million years,
Whale Evolution? - Exposing The Deception - video
Whale Tale Two
Excerpt: We think that the most logical interpretation of the Pakicetus fossils are that they represent land-dwelling mammals that didn’t even have teeth or ears in common with modern whales. This actually pulls the whale evolution tree out by the roots. Evolutionists are back to the point of not having any clue as to how land mammals could possibly have evolved into whales.
What Does It take To Change A Cow Into A Whale - David Berlinski - video
10-10-2008 - Dr Richard Buggs - research geneticist at the University of Florida
...Therefore the total similarity of the genomes could be below 70%.
Estimating the prevalence of protein sequences adopting functional enzyme folds: Doug Axe:
Excerpt: Starting with a weakly functional sequence carrying this signature, clusters of ten side-chains within the fold are replaced randomly, within the boundaries of the signature, and tested for function. The prevalence of low-level function in four such experiments indicates that roughly one in 10^64 signature-consistent sequences forms a working domain. Combined with the estimated prevalence of plausible hydropathic patterns (for any fold) and of relevant folds for particular functions, this implies the overall prevalence of sequences performing a specific function by any domain-sized fold may be as low as 1 in 10^77, adding to the body of evidence that functional folds require highly extraordinary sequences. *******www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15321723
Evolution vs. Functional Proteins - Doug Axe - Video
Chimps are not like humans - May 2004
Excerpt: the International Chimpanzee Chromosome 22 Consortium reports that 83% of chimpanzee chromosome 22 proteins are different from their human counterparts,,, The results reported this week showed that "83% of the genes have changed between the human and the chimpanzee—only 17% are identical—so that means that the impression that comes from the 1.2% [sequence] difference is [misleading]. In the case of protein structures, it has a big effect," Sakaki said. *******cmbi.bjmu.edu.cn/news/0405/119.htm
Eighty percent of proteins are different between humans and chimpanzees; Gene; Volume 346, 14 February 2005:
Stephen Meyer - Functional Proteins And Information For Body Plans - video
The Paradox of the "Ancient" Bacterium Which Contains "Modern" Protein-Coding Genes:
“Almost without exception, bacteria isolated from ancient material have proven to closely resemble modern bacteria at both morphological and molecular levels.” Heather Maughan*, C. William Birky Jr., Wayne L. Nicholson, William D. Rosenzweig§ and Russell H. Vreeland ;
Mutation Studies, Videos, And Quotes
Simulating evolution by gene duplication of protein features that require multiple amino acid residues: Michael J. Behe and David W. Snoke
Excerpt: We conclude that, in general, to be fixed in 10^8 generations, the production of novel protein features that require the participation of two or more amino acid residues simply by multiple point mutations in duplicated genes would entail population sizes of no less than 10^9.,,,The fact that very large population sizes—10^9 or greater—are required to build even a minimal [multi-residue] feature requiring two nucleotide alterations within 10^8 generations by the processes described in our model, and that enormous population sizes are required for more complex features or shorter times, seems to indicate that the mechanism of gene duplication and point mutation alone would be ineffective, at least for multicellular diploid species, because few multicellular species reach the required population sizes.
Evolution Cartoon - Waiting For That Beneficial Mutation - video
Intelligent Design - The Anthropic Hypothesis
Spontaneous generation; Can chemicals just come to life? What assumptions do evolutionists make? What can the animal world tell us about evolution versus creation? The Incredible Creatures That Defy Evolution Series enters the fascinating world of animals to reveal sophisticated and complex designs that shake the traditional foundations of evolutionary theory.
Purchase the "Incredible Creatures That Defy Evolution" DVD series at
The Rate of Evolutionary Change - The acceleration of technology in the past 50 years is moving at an exponential rate that our human self may be unable to keep pace. What do we do when evolution can't keep up to the rate of change that humans are now forced to confront?
How was the new idea for Oasis of the Seas conceived? Learn how Royal Caribbean developed this revolutionary new ship.
"Why, if species have descended from other species by fine gradations, do we not everywhere see innumerable transitional forms? Why is not all nature in confusion, instead of the species being, as we see them, well defined? But, as by this theory innumerable transitional forms must have existed, why do we not find them embedded in countless numbers in the crust of the earth? But in the intermediate region, having intermediate conditions of life, why do we not now find closely-linking intermediate varieties?" Charles Darwin - Origin Of Species
Ancient Fossils That Evolutionists Don't Want You To See - video
THE FOSSILS IN THE CREATION MUSEUM - 1000's of pictures of ancient "living" fossils that have not changed for millions of years:
Fossil Record - No Transitional Fossils - video
AMBER: THE LOOKING GLASS INTO THE PAST:
Excerpt: These (fossilized bacteria) cells are actually very similar to present day cyanobacteria. This is not only true for an isolated case but many living genera of cyanobacteria can be linked to fossil cyanobacteria. The detail noted in the fossils of this group gives indication of extreme conservation of morphology, more extreme than in other organisms.
The Paradox of the "Ancient" Bacterium Which Contains "Modern" Protein-Coding Genes:
Almost without exception, bacteria isolated from ancient material have proven to closely resemble modern bacteria at both morphological and molecular levels.
Heather Maughan*, C. William Birky Jr., Wayne L. Nicholson, William D. Rosenzweig§ and Russell H. Vreeland ;
Intelligent Design - The Anthropic Hypothesis
Evolution of a brand, from differentiation to positioning to added value. For more videos on brand management go to *******www.oxlearn**** , “From Brand Vision to Brand Evaluation Book” available at *******bit.ly/9SKnXy
WE ARE AMERICANS by Sam Gipp
Nautiloids - Evidence for a Catatrophic Occurance - *******www.youtube****/watch?v=0RoUeWg5HLo&feature=PlayList&p=282CFC439E4A4C53&playnext_from=PL&index=98
C14, "Accepted Dates are Actually Selected Dates" - *******www.youtube****/watch?v=f2hACvYYMh8
Clam Index Fossil with Flesh- *******www.youtube****/watch?v=BPMWuZ5PXsU&feature=PlayList&p=282CFC439E4A4C53&playnext_from=PL&index=58
Evolutionists Find Rapid Magnetic Field Reversal (15 Days)! - *******www.youtube****/watch?v=fn6pfzjbGHc&feature=PlayList&p=282CFC439E4A4C53&playnext_from=PL&index=76
RATE (Radioisotopes And The Age of the Earth) - *******www.youtube****/watch?v=gPynJVPq74Q&feature=PlayList&p=282CFC439E4A4C53&playnext_from=PL&index=97
Global Flood: Evidence for Rocks and Fossils - *******www.youtube****/watch?v=PXH5lwMBNiE&feature=PlayList&p=648792ACAA789544&playnext_from=PL&index=15
Radioisotopes & the Age of the Earth - *******www.youtube****/watch?v=lGFZsdEVBEw&feature=PlayList&p=F26272964EA41770&playnext_from=PL&index=17
II Corinthians 11:3
But I fear, lest somehow, as the serpent deceived Eve by his craftiness, so your minds may be corrupted from the simplicity that is in Christ.
We have all heard evolutionists claim certain rocks and fossils to be millions of years old. They claim to arrive at these long ages using index fossils. Index fossils are creatures that supposedly lived during specific ages. We are told that these ages are independently verified using radiometric dating methods. But is all of this as neat and certain as evolutionists say it is?
Recently, a rock formation in England yielded more than just rocks. This rock layer is said to be 189 million years old, based on its index fossils. The index fossils, ammonites and belemnites, were bottom living deep sea creatures. Along with these deep sea creatures, however, partially petrified wood was also found. One piece was found immediately adjacent to a deep sea fossil. Scientists who believe in young Earth creationism sent samples of the wood to three different radiocarbon dating laboratories. If the index fossil was really as old as evolutionists say, it is almost 4,000 times too old to give a radiocarbon date. Yet all the samples dated at the three laboratories showed consistent young dates. Adjusted by biblical considerations, they date to the time of Noah's Flood.
We would expect to find land-based life mixed in with deep sea creatures in any rocks that are a result of the violence of the Flood. This find illustrates and supports the biblical account of a worldwide Flood.
Prayer: Lord, the Earth witnesses Your Truth. Help me to do the same. Amen.
References: Creation, 3-5/00, pp. 44-47, "Geological Conflict."
BY MIRANDA WHEATLEY
You're watching multisource science video news analysis from Newsy.
“And now please show them your teeth Kermit!
Uh, Grover. Uh, Grover. I was going to say to you, you know how I’m a frog, you know, well frogs do not have teeth Grover, no teeth.
Open your mouth!” (YouTube/Sesame Workshop)
Almost everything you learn on Sesame Street is true. But on this one, Kermit’s got it wrong. Of nearly six thousand known species of frogs, a new study out of Stony Brook University suggests there’s actually one with a set of real-life chompers.
And that is spawning a conversation about evolution -- trait RE-evolution, to be exact. Take a look at all the species that don’t have teeth. According to the 19th Century Dollo’s Law, when a species loses a trait - like humans did tails - it never comes back. But these biologists say they’ve found a frog with teeth on both jaws - a trait not seen in some 200 million years. (Video from: National Geographic)
The tooth-frog species’ name is Gastrotheca guentheri and lives primarily in the Andean forests of Colombia and Ecuador. Head scientist John tells the BBC, analyzing frog fossils and DNA sequences helped him prove his theory.
“Dr Wiens believes that this re-evolution can be considered a ‘loophole' in Dollo's law. … ‘What G. guentheridid was to put teeth back on the lower jaw, rather than having to re-evolve all the mechanisms for making teeth 'from scratch'...’”
And The Frog Blog says the frog’s set of teeth isn’t the first example of re-evolution....
“...scientists have identified and debated several attributes that have apparently ‘re-evolved’ over time including stick insect's wings … and lost digits in lizards.”
But as Wiens points out in his study - those examples have been subject to speculation. Wiens’ research is considered a solid challenge to Dollo’s Law - and a blogger for Science 2.0 says it’s time to shake things up.
“...Dollo's law stated that complex traits lost cannot come back, evolution is irreversible - well, so what? It's been a long time since 1890 when paleontologist Louis Dollo asserted that and it was never a law anyway, it was just a hypothesis.”
Wiens says the re-evolution of Gastrotheca guentheri’s lower teeth took some 20 million years to come back, so Kermit might just have to wait awhile for that perfect smile.
Get more science video news analysis from Newsy.
Transcript by Newsy.