The length of time you're infectious for after having a viral infection depends on the type of virus involved. The infectious period often begins before you start to feel unwell or notice a rash.
The infectious periods for some common viral infections are described below.
The length of time that bronchitis is infectious varies, depending on its cause. In most cases, bronchitis is caused by the same viruses that cause the common cold or flu and you're likely to be infectious as long as you have cold or flu symptoms.
Chickenpox is infectious from about one to two days before the rash appears until all the blisters have fully crusted or scabbed over. This is usually five to six days after the start of the rash.
The common cold is infectious from a few days before your symptoms appear until all of the symptoms are gone. Most people will be infectious for around two weeks.
Symptoms are usually worse during the first two to three days and this is when you're most likely to spread the virus.
Flu is usually most infectious from the day your symptoms start and for a further three to seven days. Children and people with lowered immune systems may be infectious for a few days longer.
Gallstones and cholecystitis are treatable conditions. Gallstones that do not cause symptoms don't need immediate treatment other than an alert for potential future gallbladder problems. However, gallstones that cause symptoms or infections of the gallbladder do need treatment.
Treatment options include surgically removing the gallbladder, medications to break up gallstones, and antibiotics to treat infections.
According to the University of California San Francisco (UCSF), gallbladder removal surgery is one of the most commonly performed surgeries.
Laparoscopic gallbladder removal (keyhole surgery) is most common. In this procedure, a surgeon inserts a thin tube with a tiny video camera attached into a small incision in the abdomen. The camera transmits images from inside the body to a video monitor.
While watching the enlarged images on the monitor, the surgeon carefully removes the gallbladder through one of the small incisions. Most gallbladder removals are performed this way. These surgeries are often outpatient procedures, meaning that the patient can often go home the same day.
Several drugs are FDA-approved to relieve common symptoms of an enlarged prostate. Each works differently, says Westney. They either shrink the enlarged prostate or stop the prostate cell growth, she explains. "For many men, medications are very effective," Westney tells WebMD. "They have a significant change in symptoms, and side effects are very uncommon … so medications are an attractive treatment."
Doctors use the BPH Index to gauge how the patient responds to medication, Westney adds. "We see how symptoms are progressing … if they've stabilized or not."
Alpha blockers: These drugs don't reduce the size of the prostate, but they are very effective at relieving symptoms. They work by relaxing the muscles around the prostate and bladder neck, so urine can flow more easily. These drugs work quickly, so symptoms improve within a day or two. They are most effective for men with normal to moderately enlarged prostate glands.
The drugs: Flomax (tamsulosin), Uroxatral (alfuzosin), Hytrin (terazosin), Cardura (doxazosin), and Rapaflo (silodosin).
Alpha blockers were originally created to treat high blood pressure; dizziness is the most common side effect; other side effects are generally mild and controllable. Possible side effects include headache, stomach irritation, and stuffy nose. These drugs are not for men with significant urine retention and frequent urinary tract infections.
5-Alpha reductase inhibitors: These drugs can partially shrink the prostate by reducing levels of a male hormone -- dihydrotestosterone (DHT) -- which is involved in prostate growth. These drugs take longer to work than alpha blockers, but there is urine flow improvement after three months. These drugs can reduce risk of acute retention (inability to urinate) -- and also reduce the need for prostate surgery. You may need to take them for 6 to 12 months to see if they work.
How to Reduce Lung Inflammation|medicine to take for inflammation
Lung (pulmonary) inflammation affects the airways and lung tissue. Caused by the body’s immune response to injury or pathogens, inflammation can be acute (short-lasting) or chronic (long-lasting) in nature. Diseases associated with acute lung inflammation include acute lung infections, pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Diseases associated with chronic lung inflammation include emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), pulmonary fibrosis, and lung cancer. Anyone can develop lung inflammation, but there are certain risk factors that increase one’s chances of developing this condition. These same risk factors can also make lung inflammation worse once a person has the condition.
Reduce your exposure to fungal and bacterial pathogens. Pathogens are microorganisms that can cause disease. Certain species of bacteria and fungi can cause lung inflammation. Exposure to some of these pathogens is associated with occupational or environmental conditions. For example “Hot Tub Lung,” and “Farmer’s Lung” are common names for two kinds of mold-related lung inflammation.  Mold can grow almost anywhere that is moist enough. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), “the key to mold control is moisture control.” 
To help prevent mold in your home, keep the humidity between 30-60%. 
If you find mold, clean the affected surface with a detergent and dry the surface completely.
Prevent condensation by properly insulating areas. Avoid installing carpet in bathrooms or kitchens, where sink splashes may keep the carpet damp.
Use appropriate personal protective equipment such as masks or respirators when cleaning moldy areas.
How to Prevent Cervical Cancer|best foods to eat to prevent cervical cancer
All women are at risk for cervical cancer; however, with regular screening tests and follow-up, cervical cancer is the easiest female cancer to prevent. It is also highly curable when detected and treated early.
Get regular screenings. Cervical cancer starts with the presence of HPV (human papillomavirus), which is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Virtually everyone has HPV at least once in their life, if not more; however, the infection most often shows no symptoms so most people are unaware of having it. HPV, over time, can lead to precancerous chances in the sensitive cells around the cervix. This eventually poses the risk of developing into cervical cancer.
Most people are able to clear the infection, which eliminates the risk of cervical cancer; however, if you aren't able to clear the infection then you are at risk for cervical cancer.
By getting regular screenings, you can catch any suspicious cells early and have them treated.
How to Clean a medications to hold before cardiac cath|cardiac Catheterization Site
Cardiac catheterization is a common medical procedure which enables your doctor to examine your heart. A small tube is inserted through a blood vessel in your leg or arm and moved through your body until it reaches your heart. The catheter may be used to check the blood pressure in your heart, put contrast dye into your heart to facilitate taking X-rays, take blood samples, biopsy your heart, or check for structural problems with the chambers or valves. Because it is an invasive procedure, minimizing infection risk before and after the procedure is very important
Avoid people who are sick. If you are sick, even with a minor illness like a cold or flu, this burdens your immune system and makes it easier for you to develop complications. If you wake up the morning of your procedure with a fever, cough, drippy nose, or any other symptoms, notify your doctor immediately.
Wash your hands after you shake hands with people and before you eat. This will reduce the likelihood that you expose yourself to pathogens carried by others.
Don’t go near, hug, or shake hands with people who have the flu or a cold.
Avoid being in small confined spaces with lots of people. These are excellent opportunities for pathogen exchange. This may mean not taking public transportation such as the bus or subway.
Boost your immune system by managing stress. Stress causes hormonal and physiological changes in your body which, over time, can weaken your immune system. By easing stress and anxiety before the procedure, you can help ensure that your immune system will remain strong. You can reduce stress by:
Learning as much as possible about your procedure. Your doctor and the hospital can provide you with information. Many hospitals even have booklets of information that they provide and make freely available online. Ask your doctor or hospital if such information is available. If so, it will help you under
Pneumonia is a lung infection that can make you very sick. You may cough, run a fever, and have a hard time breathing. For most people, pneumonia can be treated at home. It often clears up in 2 to 3 weeks. But older adults, babies, and people with other diseases can become very ill. They may need to be in the hospital.
You can get pneumonia in your daily life, such as at school or work. This is called community-associated pneumonia. You can also get it when you are in a hospital or nursing home. This is called healthcare-associated pneumonia. It may be more severe because you already are ill. This topic focuses on pneumonia you get in your daily life.
Pneumonia is an infection in one or both lungs. It can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Bacterial pneumonia is the most common type in adults.
Pneumonia causes inflammation in the air sacs in your lungs, which are called alveoli. The alveoli fill with fluid or pus, making it difficult to breathe.
Read on to learn more about pneumonia and how to treat it.
Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs with a range of possible causes. It can be a serious and life-threatening disease.
It normally starts with a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection.
The lungs become inflamed, and the tiny air sacs, or alveoli, inside the lungs fill up with fluid.
Pneumonia can occur in young and healthy people, but it is most dangerous for older adults, infants, people with other diseases, and those with impaired immune systems.
For most men with very enlarged prostates, surgery can relieve symptoms - but there are both risks and benefits with each type of operation. Discuss them with your doctor. After a careful evaluation of your situation and your general medical condition, your doctor will recommend which is best for you.
TURP (transurethral resection of the prostate): This is the most common surgery for an enlarged prostate, and considered to bring the greatest reduction in symptoms. Only the tissue growth that is pressing against the urethra is removed to allow urine to flow easily. The procedure involves an electrical loop that cuts tissue and seals blood vessels. Most doctors suggest using TURP whenever surgery is required, as it is less traumatic than open surgery and requires shorter recovery time.
With the TURP procedure, patients can expect to have retrograde ejaculation afterwards, says Westney. This is a condition in which a man ejaculates backward into the bladder instead of through the urethra. "Retrograde ejaculation generally isn't painful," she tells WebMD. "It shouldn't be an issue unless fertility is a concern." Other possible side effects include blood loss requiring transfusion (rare), painful urination, recurring urinary tract infections, bladder neck narrowing, and blood in the urine.
After TURP, the odds of erection problems range from 5% to 35%. However, this is often temporary -- and the ability to have an erection and an orgasm returns after a few months.
TUIP (transurethral incision of the prostate): This procedure involves making cuts in the prostate instead of removing prostate tissue. These cuts reduce pressure on the urethra, making urination easier. Patients go home the same day, and wear a catheter for a day or two.
Symptom relief is slower with TUIP, compared with TURP. However, most men are satisfied with their ultimate symptom relief from this. Also, retrograde ejaculation is less common and less severe than after TURP. Risk of erection problems
Bacteria and viruses are the main causes of pneumonia. Pneumonia-causing germs can settle in the alveoli and multiply after a person breathes them in.
Pneumonia can be contagious. The bacteria and viruses that cause pneumonia are usually inhaled.
They can be passed on through coughing and sneezing, or spread onto shared objects through touch.
The body sends white blood cells to attack the infection. This is why the air sacs become inflamed. The bacteria and viruses fill the lung sacs with fluid and pus, causing pneumonia.
Those most at risk include people who:
are aged under 5 years or over 65 years
smoke tobacco, consume large amounts of alcohol, or both
have underlying conditions such as cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), asthma, or conditions that affect the kidneys, heart, or liver
have a weakened or impaired immune system, due, for example, to AIDS, HIV, or cancer
take medicines for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
have recently recovered from a cold or influenza infection
have been recently hospitalized in an intensive care unit
have been exposed to certain chemicals or pollutants
Some groups are more prone than others to pneumonia, including Native Alaskan or certain Native American ethnicities.
If trips to the restroom require sudden dashes or are marked by difficulty urinating, your prostate may be enlarged. You’re not alone — the Urology Care Foundation estimates that 50 percent of men in their 50s have an enlarged prostate. The prostate is the gland that produces the fluid that carries sperm. It grows larger with age. An enlarged prostate, or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), can block the urethra from transporting urine from the bladder and out of the penis.
Keep reading to learn about traditional treatments for BPH.
BPH treatment options
Don’t resign yourself to living with BPH. Addressing your symptoms now can help you avoid problems later. Untreated BPH may lead to urinary tract infections, acute urinary retention (you can’t go at all), and kidney and bladder stones. In severe cases it can lead to kidney damage.
Treatment options include medications and surgery. You and your doctor will consider several factors when you evaluate these choices. These factors include:
how much your symptoms interfere with your life
the size of your prostate
your overall health
any other medical conditions
The major types of pneumonia are classified by the cause of the infection, where the infection was transmitted, and how the infection was acquired.
Types by germ
Pneumonia can be classified according to the organism that caused the infection.
Bacterial pneumonia: The most common cause of bacterial pneumonia is Streptococcus pneumoniae. Chlamydophila pneumonia and Legionella pneumophila can also cause bacterial pneumonia.
Viral pneumonia: Respiratory viruses are often the cause of pneumonia, especially in young children and older people. Viral pneumonia is usually not serious and lasts for a shorter time than bacterial pneumonia.
Mycoplasma pneumonia: Mycoplasma organisms are not viruses or bacteria, but they have traits common to both. Mycoplasmas generally cause mild cases of pneumonia, most often in older children and young adults.
Pneumonia that’s not caused by bacteria may be less serious. It’s sometimes called walking pneumonia. This is because unlike other types of pneumonia, it doesn’t require bed rest.
Fungal pneumonia: Fungi from soil or bird droppings can cause pneumonia in people who inhale large amounts of the organisms. They can also cause pneumonia in people with chronic diseases or weakened immune systems.
How to Read a Tuberculosis Skin Test|Monitoring Symptoms of Tuberculosis
TB soon after infection or their latent infection may become active when their immune system weakens. This will lead to serious symptoms and can easily be spread to others. It is extremely important to undergo treatment for active tuberculosis infection immediately, to remove the bacteria from your body and reduce the risk of infecting others.