What is a chemical?
Everything in the physical world around us is made of chemicals. The earth we walk on, the air we breathe, the food we eat, the cars we drive, and the houses we live in are all made of various chemicals. Living organisms such as plants, animals, and humans are also made of chemicals.
Some of the chemicals we contact in our daily lives are man-made. These man-made chemicals include some drugs, cosmetics, workplace products, household cleaning agents, and so on. Many more chemicals which we are exposed to each day occur naturally and are found in our food, in the air, and in water. There are far more natural chemicals in our environment than man-made ones. Both man-made and natural chemicals can have poisonous effects.
What makes chemicals poisonous?
There are several factors which can influence the degree of poisoning caused by a chemical. These factors are as follows:
Route of entry into the body
Amount or dose entering the body
Toxicity of the chemical
Removal from the body
What are the routes of entry into the body?
No chemical can cause poisonous effects without first coming into contact with the body.
Inhaling (breathing in) contaminated air is the most common way that workplace products enter the body. Some chemicals, when in contact with the skin, can seep through the skin. Less commonly, workplace chemicals may be swallowed, for example from contaminated food or cigarettes. The eyes may also be a route of entry. Usually, however, only very small quantities of chemicals in the workplace enter the body through the mouth or the eyes.
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Manmade diamonds- Perfect for Jewellery
Have you seen how beautiful diamond jewellery looks?
Yes, the wearer of the jewellery actually becomes the star of the evening. The diamonds used in the jewellery sparkle and shine to give a magnificent appearance, complementing the design of the clothes of the wearer. Generally, the diamonds used on the jewellery tend to be mined diamonds, which are expensive and not easily available. However, this is soon going to change.
How man made diamonds are better than mined diamonds
Many of you may say that man made diamonds are ‘artificial’, but this is far from the truth. Man made diamonds are physically, chemically and optically similar to mined diamonds, in fact, these diamonds are produced in a way that mimics the way mined diamonds have formed deep in the Earth’s crust. This way, manmade diamonds are produced with better specs and lesser to virtually no inclusions of other minerals or other materials in the diamond.
In fact, recent news reports suggest that toxic air is being collected in China which will eventually be used to make diamonds.
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HPHT diamonds/CVD diamonds
Diamonds square measure pure carbon. Ever since this was discovered in 1797, many of us have tried to provide diamonds unnaturally however the important breakthrough came in 1955, once General electrical managed to provide a workplace big diamond employing a revolutionary Super Pressure Project that helps to provide diamonds. Ever since there has been a gradual growth within the production of workplace big diamonds, ninetieth of that have industrial uses. Currently, diamonds square measure made mistreatment 2 techniques- HPHT and CVD diamonds
The air mass warmth method imitates the means diamonds square measure fashioned naturally. A carbon ‘seed’ is place in a very specially designed press wherever it's given air mass and a warmth of regarding 1400 Degrees stargazer is employed to create colourless and prime quality diamonds which may then be used for industrial use and also the jewelry trade.
Currently there square measure 3 main ways in which HPHT diamonds square measure made-
• The Belt Press
• The boxy Press
• The BARS equipment
Of these, the Russian designed BARS equipment is that the most well liked. It consists of a ceramic cylindrical ‘synthesis capsule’ that is placed in eight steel anvils. the complete equipment is then secured and oil is additional that is heated, giving pressure that ultimately leads into the creation of a diamond.
Chemical Vapour Deposition diamonds don't need pressue, in contrast to HPHT diamonds. this technique was developed within the Nineteen Eighties. This method involves the heating of a mix of organic compound gas (generally methane) and chemical element in a very chamber at extreme low pressures. This leads to the formation of diamonds that square measure freed from any chemical inclusions or alternative impurities.
These technologies square measure serving to the introduction of workplace big diamonds to the jewelry and alternative allied industries that historically use
High Quality Lab created diamonds (also referred to as man made diamonds, lab grown diamonds, and synthetic diamonds) are grown in highly-controlled laboratory conditions that simulate the earth’s natural growing environment, creating real lab created diamonds that are optically, chemically and atomically identical to earth-mined diamonds.
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‘A diamond is forever’- This slogan is considered one of the best slogans in advertising history, it helped a struggling industry flourish after the World War. Prior to the hugely successful ad campaign by NW Ayer diamonds were worn only by royalty, and the common man did not care about and wasn’t interested in diamonds. The ad campaign put it in the minds of the people that a diamond is necessary for an engagement ring, and it surely became a phenomenal success. The DeBeers group, who had hired NW Ayer for the campaign, benefitted the most by the campaign, seeing an almost 55% increase in sale of diamonds from the pre-war levels.
The sale of mined diamonds is controlled by an oligopoly of firms who set the prices to adjust their vested interests. On the other hand, lab grown diamonds do not have any kind of controversies attached to them, they can be bought at a much reasonable price. Next time whenever you need a diamond, do inquire about lab-grown ones and make a decision accordingly.
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What is radiation?
Radiation is energy that travels as a wave or particle. Some types of radiation, called ionizing radiation, can be harmful. Radioactivity is ionizing radiation that is given off by substances, such as uranium, as they decay.
About half of the ionizing radiation we're exposed to comes from nature. It's in rock, soil, and the atmosphere. The other half comes from man-made sources like medical tests and treatments and nuclear power plants.
How much radiation is dangerous?
There is always a risk of damage to cells or tissue from being exposed to any amount of ionizing radiation. Over time, exposure to radiation may cause cancer and other health problems. But in most cases, the risk of getting cancer from being exposed to small amounts of radiation is small.
The chance of getting cancer varies from person to person. It depends on the source and amount of radiation exposure, the number of exposures over time, and your age at exposure. In general, the younger you are when you are exposed to radiation, the greater the risk of cancer.
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Toxins are poisonous compounds produced by living organisms; sometimes the term “biotoxin” is used to emphasize the biological origin of these compounds. Man-made chemical compounds with toxic potential are more properly called toxicants. Toxins and toxicants can exert their detrimental effects on health in a number of ways. Some broadly act as mutagens or carcinogens (causing DNA damage or mutations, which can lead to cancer), others can disrupt specific metabolic pathways which can lead to dysfunction of particular biological systems such as the nervous system, liver, or kidneys.
The diet is a major source of toxin exposure. Toxins can find their way into the diet by several routes, notably contamination by microorganisms, man-made toxicants including pesticides, residues from food processing, prescription drugs and industrial wastes) or less frequently, contamination by toxins from other “non-food” plant sources. Some of the toxic heavy metals lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, while not “man-made,” have been released/redistributed into the environment at potentially dangerous levels by man, and can find their way into the diet as well. Microbial toxins, secreted by bacteria and fungi, can be ingested along with contaminated or improperly prepared food.
Even the method of food preparation has the potential for converting naturally-occurring food constituents into toxins. For instance, high temperatures can convert nitrogen-containing compounds in meats and cereal products into the potent mutagens benzopyrene and acrylamide, respectively. Smoked fish and cheeses contain precursors to toxins called N-nitroso compounds NOCs, which become mutagenic when metabolized by colonic bacteria.
Outside of the diet, respiratory exposure to volatile organic compounds VOCs is a common risk which has been associated with several adverse health effects, including kidney damage, immunological problems, hormonal imbalances,
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Radiation is energy that travels as particles or waves and can be naturally occurring or man-made. It is all around us in various forms ranging from radio waves to x-rays to cosmic radiation.
We gain benefits from this energy and we classify these energies into two main types:
Non-ionizing radiation has enough energy to excite atoms (making them move more rapidly). Examples of non-ionizing sources include microwave ovens, radio transmissions, cell phones, and visible light.
Ionizing radiation has enough energy to change atoms by remove electrons from them, a process called ionization. Examples of ionizing sources are X-rays, nuclear power plants, and smoke detectors.
There are three main kinds of ionizing radiation:
alpha particles, which include two protons and two neutrons
beta particles, which are essentially high-speed electrons
gamma rays and x-rays, which are pure energy (photons)