When a person has experienced known or probable exposure to a high dose of radiation from an accident or attack, medical personnel take a number of steps to determine the absorbed radiation dose. This information is essential for determining how severe the illness is likely to be, which treatments to use and whether a person is likely to survive.
Information important for determining an absorbed dose includes:
Known exposure. Details about distance from the source of radiation and duration of exposure can help provide a rough estimate of the severity of radiation sickness.
Vomiting and other symptoms. The time between radiation exposure and the onset of vomiting is a fairly accurate screening tool to estimate absorbed radiation dose. The shorter the time before the onset of this sign, the higher the dose. The severity and timing of other signs and symptoms also may help medical personnel determine the absorbed dose.
Blood tests. Frequent blood tests over several days enable medical personnel to look for drops in disease-fighting white blood cells and abnormal changes in the DNA of blood cells. These factors indicate the degree of bone marrow damage, which is determined by the level of an absorbed dose.
Dosimeter. A device called a dosimeter can measure the absorbed dose of radiation but only if it was exposed to the same radiation event as the affected person.
Survey meter. A device such as a Geiger counter can be used to survey people to determine the body location of radioactive particles.
Type of radiation. A part of the larger emergency response to a radioactive accident or attack would include identifying the type of radiation exposure. This information would guide some decisions for treating people with radiation sickness.
The lymphatic system is made up of lymph capillaries, vessels, and nodes, the spleen, thymus, tonsils, Peyer’s Patches, and lymphocytes (white blood cells). Red bone marrow is also a part of the lymphatic system. We have hundreds of lymph nodes. Lymph nodes can be found all around the lungs and heart, in the gut, in the armpits and groin, and pretty much all over the body.
Blood pressure causes plasma liquid to leak into tissues, and this pressure causes excess fluid in those tissues to move into the lymph capillaries. As this fluid leaves the cells, it takes cellular waste products and used proteins with it. The lymphatic capillaries pick up approximately 20% of the fluid that was delivered to the interstitial space. The venous system picks up about 80% of the fluid in the interstitial space. The unique structure of the lymphatic capillaries permits interstitial fluid to flow into them but not out.
Blood pressure, temperature, activity of muscle and joints, diaphragmatic breathing, and pulsation of adjacent arteries all cause lymph to move up to the subclavian veins at the base of the neck. Valves and pressure keep lymph moving in the right direction. Along the way, the fluid is interrupted by lymph nodes that filter dust, cancer cells, pathogens, and other unwanted matter. Lymph nodes also produce lymphocytes (white blood cells). The spleen, tonsils, and red bone marrow help produce lymphocytes as well.
The spleen, which is about the size of our fist, is the largest lymphatic organ. It is similar in structure to a lymph node, but it filters blood, not lymph. The spleen contains two main types of tissue, white pulp and red pulp. White pulp is lymphatic tissue containing white blood cells – B and T cells. T cells attack pathogens (such as bacteria and viruses) while B cells make antibodies that fight infections. Red pulp tissue removes old and damaged red blood cells and stores platelets. It also produces red blood cells in unborn babies and when certain disease
The amount of radiation is measured in several different units. The roentgen (R) is a measure of the ionizing ability of radiation in air and is commonly used to express the intensity of exposure to radiation. How much radiation people are exposed to and how much is deposited in their body may be very different. The gray (Gy) and sievert (Sv) are measures of the dose of radiation, which is the amount of radiation deposited in matter, and are the units used to measure dose in humans after exposure to radiation. The Gy and Sv are similar, except the Sv takes into account the effectiveness of different types of radiation to cause damage and the sensitivity of different tissues in the body to radiation. Low dose levels are measured in mGy (1 mGy = 1/1000Gy) and mSv (1 mSv = 1/1000Sv).
Contamination vs. irradiation
An individual's radiation dose can be increased in two ways, contamination and irradiation. Many of the most significant radiation accidents have exposed people to both.
Contamination is contact with and retention of radioactive material, usually as a dust or liquid. External contamination is that on skin or clothing, from which some can fall or be rubbed off, contaminating other people and objects. Internal contamination is radioactive material deposited within the body, which it may enter by ingestion, inhalation, or through breaks in the skin. Once in the body, radioactive material may be transported to various sites, such as the bone marrow, where it continues to emit radiation, increasing the dose, until it is removed or emits all its energy (decays). Internal contamination is more difficult to remove than external contamination.
chronic monocytic leukemia |How to Prevent Leukemia in Children
Leukemia is a cancer of the blood cells that begins in the bone marrow. Statistics show that there are 2000-3000 children affected with leukemia every year. It is the most common childhood cancer in the United States. According to the American Cancer Society, there is no known way to prevent most childhood cancer as of the moment. Since most adults and children with leukemia have no known actual risk factors, prevention in leukemia development is uncertain but you may try the following methods.
Keep your child away from high doses of radiation. Studies show that people exposed to a high dose of radiation are at risk for leukemia. A classic example is the Hiroshima bombing survivors. Their exposure to atomic bomb radiation increased their chances of getting leukemia dramatically.
How to Manage Multiple Myeloma Pain|myeloma therapy
Multiple myeloma is type of blood cancer that affects plasma in the white blood cells. When you develop this type of cancer, the cancer cells move to your bone marrow. It can affect your immune system, as well as your kidneys, and can cause bone lesions. You'll most likely notice pain in your bones, particularly your chest and back, which you can treat with medications, medical interventions, and home remedies
Radiation and DNA
Radiation is simply a mechanism whereby energy passes through space. It takes the form of an electromagnetic wave, with the frequency of the electromagnetic wave determining its position in the electromagnetic spectrum. Low-frequency waves such as radio waves lie at one end of the spectrum and high-energy, high-frequency X-rays/Gamma rays at the other end. These high-frequency, high-energy waves are termed “ionizing” (as opposed to non-ionizing) radiation because they contain sufficient energy to displace an electron from its orbit around a nucleus. The most important consequence of this displaced electron on human tissue is the potential damage it can inflict on DNA, which may occur directly or indirectly. Direct damage occurs when the displaced electron hits and breaks a DNA strand. Indirect damage occurs when the electron reacts with a water molecule, creating a powerful hydroxyl radical which then damages the cell’s DNA.
Damage to a cell’s DNA in either of these ways can have several consequences. A single-strand DNA break is usually repaired appropriately by the cell with no subsequent deleterious sequelae. However, a break affecting both strands of DNA allows the potential for abnormal reconnection of the strands, which likely accounts for all the adverse biological effects ionizing radiation has on humans. First, DNA may rejoin itself incorrectly, rendering the cell nonviable with cell death taking place. Second, it may rejoin as a symmetrical translocation with the potential expression of an oncogene during division (and development of subsequent malignancy) or with abnormal division in gonads, giving rise to potential hereditary disorders.
Radiosensitivity is the probability of a cell, tissue, or organ suffering an effect per unit dose of radiation. Radiosensitivity is highest in cells which are highly mitotic or undifferentiated. For this reason the basal epidermis, bone marrow, thymus, gonads, and lens cells are highly radiosensitive.
The deleterious effect ionizing radiation has on human tissue can be divided into two types: non-stochastic (deterministic) or stochastic effects.
Deterministic (Non-Stochastic) Effects
Deterministic effects only occur once a threshold of exposure has been exceeded. The severity of deterministic effects increases as the dose of exposure increases. Because of an identifiable threshold level, appropriate radiation protection mechanisms and occupational exposure dose limits can be put in place to reduce the likelihood of these effects occurring.
Deterministic effects are caused by significant cell damage or death. The physical effects will occur when the cell death burden is large enough to cause obvious functional impairment of a tissue or organ.
Erythema occurs 1 to 24 hours after 2 Sv have been received. Breakdown of the skin surface occurs approximately four weeks after 15 Sv have been received. Epilation is reversible after 3 Sv but irreversible after 7 Sv and occurs three weeks following exposure.
Cataract occurs due to accumulation of damaged or dead cells within the lens, the removal of which cannot take place naturally. Cataract occurs after 2 to 10 Gy have been received, but may take years to develop.
Radiation can impair oocyte function, leading to impaired or non-fertility. The radiation dose required to have this effect decreases with age due to falling total oocyte numbers. Similarly, radiation exposure to the testes can result in temporary or permanent azoospermia. Permanent sterility occurs after 2.5 to 3.5 Gy have been received by the gonads.
Radiation sickness (correctly termed acute radiation syndrome) involves nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea developing within hours or minutes of a radiation exposure. This is due to deterministic effects on the bone marrow, GI tract, and CNS.
Lead poisoning is diagnosed with a blood lead test. This test is performed on a standard blood sample.
Lead is common in the environment. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences reports that no amount of lead in the blood is safe. It is known that levels as low as 5 micrograms per deciliter can be associated with health problems in children.
Additional tests could include blood tests to look at the amount of iron storing cells in the blood, X-rays, and possibly a bone marrow biopsy.
Your child's doctor may recommend your child be tested for lead levels during routine check-ups.
The American Academy of Pediatricians recommends that doctors and parents follow the recommendations of their state or local health department. Some areas, such as those with older homes, have a higher lead exposure risk, so more frequent testing might be recommended for children who live in those areas.
If your area doesn't have specific lead testing recommendations, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends your child be tested for lead levels at ages 1 and 2. Doctors might also suggest lead screening for older children who haven't been tested.
A simple blood test can detect lead poisoning. A small blood sample is taken from a finger prick or from a vein. Lead levels in the blood are measured in micrograms per deciliter (mcg/dL).
There is no safe blood level of lead. However, a level of 5 mcg/dL is used to indicate a possibly unsafe level for children. Children whose blood tests at those levels should be tested periodically. A child whose levels become too high — generally 45 mcg/dL or higher — should be treated.
Radiation exposure may involve
Radioactive contamination is the unintended contact with and retention of radioactive material, usually as a dust or liquid. Contamination may be
External contamination is that on skin or clothing, from which some can fall or be rubbed off, contaminating other people and objects. Internal contamination is unintended radioactive material within the body, which it may enter by ingestion, inhalation, or through breaks in the skin. Once in the body, radioactive material may be transported to various sites (eg, bone marrow), where it continues to emit radiation until it is removed or decays. Internal contamination is more difficult to remove. Although internal contamination with any radionuclide is possible, historically, most cases in which contamination posed a significant risk to the patient involved a relatively small number of radionuclides, such as phosphorus-32, cobalt-60, strontium-90, cesium-137, iodine-131, iodine-125, radium-226, uranium-235, uranium-238, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, polonium-210, and americium-241.
Irradiation is exposure to radiation but not radioactive material (ie, no contamination is involved). Radiation exposure can occur without the source of radiation (eg, radioactive material, x-ray machine) being in contact with the person. When the source of the radiation is removed or turned off, exposure ends. Irradiation can involve the whole body, which, if the dose is high enough, can result in systemic symptoms and radiation syndromes (see Radiation Exposure and Contamination : Acute radiation syndromes (ARS)), or a small part of the body (eg, from radiation therapy), which can result in local effects. People do not emit radiation (ie, become radioactive) following irradiation.
Leukemia is a cancer of blood and bone marrow; it is of different types Leukaemia such as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. The slow-growing leukaemia has no symptoms whereas rapid growing leukaemia has symptoms like; fatigue, weight loss, frequent infections and easy bruising or bleeding. This disease is treated by chemotherapy, radiation and stem-cell transplant. It is easy to get the best treatment in India with the help of Indian med guru consultants. The consultants will help you to get medical visa, airport pick and drop, local travel, meals for patients and family, accommodation for patients and family and also the appointment with the best surgeon in India.
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