How Do We Reverse the Brain Drain?
Keynote speech by Emeagwali [emeagwali****] delivered on October 24, 2003, at the Pan-African Conference on Brain Drain, Elsah, Illinois USA. The entire transcript, letters and photos are posted at *******emeagwali****/speeches/brain-drain/to-brain-gain/reverse-brain-drain-from-africa.html. Permission to reproduce is granted.
Thank you for the pleasant introduction as well as for inviting me to share my thoughts on turning “brain drain” into “brain gain.”
For 10 million African-born emigrants, the word “home” is synonymous with the United States, Britain or other country outside of Africa.
Personally, I have lived continuously in the United States for the past 30 years. My last visit to Africa was 17 years ago.
On the day I left Nigeria, I felt sad because I was leaving my family behind. I believed I would return eight years later, probably marry an Igbo girl, and then spend the rest of my life in Nigeria.
But 25 years ago, I fell in love with an American girl, married her three years later, and became eligible to sponsor a Green Card visa for my 35 closest relatives, including my parents and all my siblings, nieces and nephews.
The story of how I brought 35 people to the United States exemplifies how 10 million skilled people have emigrated out of Africa during the past 30 years.
We came to the United States on student visas and then changed our status to become permanent residents and then naturalized citizens. Our new citizenship status helped us sponsor relatives, and also inspired our friends to immigrate here.
Ten million Africans now constitute an invisible nation that resides outside Africa. Although invisible, it is a nation as populous as Angola, Malawi, Zambia or Zimbabwe. If it were to be a nation with distinct borders, it would have an income roughly equivalent to Africa’s gross domestic product.
Although the African Union does not recognize the African Diaspora as a nation, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) acknowledges its economic importance. The IMF estimates the African Diaspora now constitutes the biggest group of foreign investors in Africa.
Take for example Western Union. It estimates that it is not atypical for an immigrant to wire 00 per month to relatives in Africa. If you assume that most Africans living outside Africa send money each month and you do the math, you will agree with the IMF that the African Diaspora is indeed the largest foreign investor in Africa.
What few realize is that Africans who immigrate to the United States contribute 40 times more wealth to the American than to the African economy. According to the United Nations, an African professional working in the United States contributes about 50,000 per year to the U.S. economy.
Again, if you do the math, you will realize that the African professional remitting 00 per month to Africa is contributing 40 times more to the United States economy than to the African one.
On a relative scale, that means for every 00 per month a professional African sends home, that person contributes 2,000 per month to the U.S. economy.
Of course, the issue more important than facts and figures is eliminating poverty in Africa, not merely reducing it by sending money to relatives. Money alone cannot eliminate poverty in Africa, because even one million dollars is a number with no intrinsic value.
Real wealth cannot be measured by money, yet we often confuse money with wealth. Under the status quo, Africa would still remain poor even if we were to send all the money in the world there.
Ask someone who is ill what “wealth” means, and you will get a very different answer than from most other people.
If you were HIV-positive, you would gladly exchange one million dollars to become HIV-negative.
When you give your money to your doctor, that physician helps you convert your money into health - or rather, wealth.
Money cannot teach your children. Teachers can. Money cannot bring electricity to your home. Engineers can. Money cannot cure sick people. Doctors can.
Because it is only a nation’s human capital that can be converted into real wealth, that human capital is much more valuable than its financial capital.
A few years ago, Zambia had 1,600 medical doctors. Today, Zambia has only 400 medical doctors. Kenya retains only 10% of the nurses and doctors trained there. A similar story is told from South Africa to Ghana.
I also speak from my family experiences. After contributing 25 years to Nigerian society as a nurse, my father retired on a 5-per-month pension.
By comparison, my four sisters each earn 5 per hour as nurses in the United States. If my father had had the opportunity my sisters did, he certainly would have immigrated to the United States as a young nurse.
The “brain drain” explains, in part, why affluent Africans fly to London for their medical treatments.
Furthermore, because a significant percentage of African doctors and nurses practice in U.S. hospitals, we can reasonably conclude that African medical schools are de facto serving the American people, not Africa.
A recent World Bank survey shows that African universities are exporting a large percentage of their graduating manpower to the United States. In a given year, the World Bank estimates that 70,000 skilled Africans immigrate to Europe and the United States.
While these 70,000 skilled Africans are fleeing the continent in search of employment and decent wages, 100,000 skilled expatriates who are paid wages higher than the prevailing rate in Europe are hired to replace them.
In Nigeria, the petroleum industry hires about 1,000 skilled expatriates, even though we can find similar skills within the African Diaspora. Instead of developing its own manpower resources, Nigeria prefers to contract out its oil exploration despite the staggeringly high price of having to concede 40% of its profits to foreign oil companies.
In a pre-independence day editorial, the Vanguard (Nigeria) queried: “Why would the optimism of 1960 give way to the despair of 2000?”
My answer is this: Nigeria achieved political independence in 1960, but by the year 2000 had not yet achieved technological independence.
During colonial rule, Nigeria retained only 50% of the profits from oil derived from its own territory. Four decades after this colonial rule ended, the New York Times (December 22, 2002) wrote that “40 percent of the oil revenue goes to Chevron, [and] 60 percent to the [Nigerian] government.”
As a point of comparison, the United States would never permit a Nigerian oil company to retain 40% of the profits from a Texas oilfield.
Our African homelands have paid an extraordinary price for their lack of domestic technological knowledge.
Because of that lack of knowledge, since it gained independence in 1960, Nigeria has relinquished 40% of its oilfields and 00 billion to American and European stockholders.
Because of that lack of knowledge, Nigeria exports crude petroleum, only to import refined petroleum.
Because of that lack of knowledge, Africa exports raw steel, only to import cars that are essentially steel products.
Knowledge is the engine that drives economic growth, and Africa cannot eliminate poverty without first increasing and nurturing its intellectual capital.
Reversing the “brain drain” will increase Africa’s intellectual capital while also increasing its wealth in many, many different ways.
Can the “brain drain” be reversed? My answer is: yes. But in order for it to happen, we must try something different.
At this point, I want to inject a new idea into this dialogue. For my idea to work, it requires that we tap the talents and skills of the African Diaspora. It requires that we create one million high-tech jobs in Africa. It requires that we move one million high-tech jobs from the United States to Africa.
I know you are wondering: How can we move one million jobs from the United States to Africa?
It can be done. In fact, by the year 2015 the U.S. Department of Labor expects to lose an estimated 3.3 million call center jobs to developing nations.
In this area, what we as Africans need to do is develop a strategic plan – one that will persuade multinational companies that it will be more profitable to move their call centers to nations in Africa instead of India.
These high-tech jobs include those in call centers, customer service and help desks – all of which are suitable for unemployed university graduates.
The reason these jobs could now emerge in Africa is that recent technological advances such as the Internet and mobile telephones now make it practical, cheaper and otherwise advantageous to move these services to developing nations, where lower wages prevail.
If Africa succeeds in capturing one million of these high-tech jobs, they could provide more revenues than all the African oilfields. These “greener pastures” would lure back talent and, in turn, create a reverse “brain drain.”
Again, we have a rare and unique window of opportunity to convert projected American job losses into Africa’s job gain, and thus change the “brain drain” to “brain gain.”
However, aggressive action must be taken before this window of opportunity closes. India is a formidable competitor.
Therefore, we need to determine the cost savings realized by outsourcing call center jobs to Africa instead of India. That cost saving will be used as a selling point to corporations interested in outsourcing jobs.
A typical call center employee might be a housewife using a laptop computer and a cell phone to work from her home. As night settles and her children go to bed, she could place a phone call to Los Angeles, which is 10 hours behind her time zone.
An American answers her call and she says, “Good morning, this is Zakiya.” Using a standard, rehearsed script, she tries to sell an American product.
Now that USA-to-Africa telephone calls are as low as 6 cents per minute, it is economically feasible for a telephone sales person to reside in Anglophone Africa while virtually employed in the United States, and – this is important - paying income taxes only to her country in Africa.
I will give one more example of how thousands of call center jobs can be created in Africa.
It is well known that U.S. companies often give up on collecting outstanding account balances of less than 0 each. The reason is that it often costs 0 in American labor to recover that 0.
By comparison, I believe it would cost only 0 in African labor (including the 6 cents per minute phone call) to collect an outstanding balance of 0.
Earlier, the organizers of this Pan African Conference gave me a note containing eleven questions.
The first was: Do skilled Africans have the moral obligation to remain and work in Africa?
I believe those with skills should be encouraged and rewarded to stay, work, and raise their families in Africa. When that happens, a large middle class will be created, thereby reducing the conditions that give rise to civil war and corruption. Then, a true revitalization and renaissance will occur.
The second question was: Should skilled African emigrants be compelled to return to Africa?
I believe controlling emigration will be very difficult. Instead, I recommend the United Nations impose a “brain gain tax” upon those nations benefiting from the “brain drain.”
Each year, the United States creates a brain drain by issuing 135,000 H1-B visas to “outstanding researchers” and persons with “extraordinary ability.”
The U.S. Internal Revenue Service (IRS), working in tangent with the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), could be required to credit one month’s salary, each year, to the country of birth of each immigrant.
Already, the IRS allows U.S. taxpayers to make voluntary contributions to election funds. Similarly, it could allow immigrants to voluntarily pay taxes to their country of birth, instead of to the United States.
The third question was: Why don’t we encourage unemployed Africans to seek employment abroad?
Put differently, if all the nurses and doctors in Africa were to win the U.S. visa lottery, who will operate our hospitals?
If we encourage 8 million talented Africans to emigrate, what will we encourage their remaining 800 million brothers and sisters to do?
The fourth question was: Should we blame the African Diaspora for Africa's problems?
Yes, the Diaspora should be blamed in part, because the absence it’s created has diminished the continent’s intellectual capital and thus created the vacuum enabling dictators and corruption to flourish.
The likes of Idi Amin, Jean-Bedel Bokassa and Mobutu Sese Seko would not be able to declare themselves president-for-life of nations who have a large, educated middle class.
The fifth question was: Should we not blame Africa’s leaders for siphoning money from Africa’s treasuries?
It becomes a vicious circle: the flight of intellectual capital increases the flight of financial capital which in turn increases again the flight of intellectual capital.
Leadership is a collective process, and “brain drain” reduces the collective brainpower needed to fight corruption and mismanagement.
For example, the leadership of the Central Bank of Nigeria did not call a news conference after Sani Abacha stole billion dollars from it.
The bank’s Governor-General did not go on a hunger strike. He did not report the robbery to the police. He did not file a lawsuit.
Had they the intellectual manpower to counter corruption, the results would have been very different.
The sixth question was: Is it possible to achieve an African renaissance?
Because by definition, a renaissance is the revival and flowering of the arts, literature and sciences, it must be preceded by a growth in the continent’s intellectual capital, or the collective knowledge of the people.
The best African musicians live in France. The top African writers live in the United States or Britain. The soccer superstars live in Europe. It will be impossible to achieve a renaissance without the contributions of the talented.
The seventh question was: For how long has the “brain drain” problem existed?
A common misconception is that the African “brain drain” started 40 years ago.
In reality, it actually began ten times that long. Four hundred years ago, most people of African descent lived in Africa. Today, one in five of African descent live in the Americas. Therefore, measured in numbers, the largest “brain drain” resulted from the trans-Atlantic slave trade.
Contrary to what people believed, Africa experienced a brain gain during the first half of the 20th century. Schools, hospitals and banks were built by the British colonialists. These institutions were the visible manifestations of brain gain.
At the end of colonial rule, skilled Europeans fled the continent. Skilled Africans started fleeing the continent in the 1970s, 80s, and 90s. The result was the widespread rise of despotic rulers.
The eighth question was: Is brain
Established as a Belgian colony in 1908, the Republic of the Congo gained its independence in 1960, but its early years were marred by political and social instability. Col. Joseph MOBUTU seized power and declared himself president in a November 1965 coup. He subsequently changed his name - to MOBUTU Sese Seko - as well as that of the country - to Zaire. MOBUTU retained his position for 32 years through several sham elections, as well as through the use of brutal force. Ethnic strife and civil war, touched off by a massive inflow of refugees in 1994 from fighting in Rwanda and Burundi, led in May 1997 to the toppling of the MOBUTU regime by a rebellion backed by Rwanda and Uganda and fronted by Laurent KABILA. He renamed the country the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), but in August 1998 his regime was itself challenged by a second insurrection again backed by Rwanda and Uganda. Troops from Angola, Chad, Namibia, Sudan, and Zimbabwe intervened to support KABILA's regime. A cease-fire was signed in July 1999 by the DRC, Congolese armed rebel groups, Angola, Namibia, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zimbabwe but sporadic fighting continued. Laurent KABILA was assassinated in January 2001 and his son, Joseph KABILA, was named head of state. In October 2002, the new president was successful in negotiating the withdrawal of Rwandan forces occupying eastern Congo; two months later, the Pretoria Accord was signed by all remaining warring parties to end the fighting and establish a government of national unity. A transitional government was set up in July 2003. Joseph KABILA as president and four vice presidents represented the former government, former rebel groups, the political opposition, and civil society. The transitional government held a successful constitutional referendum in December 2005 and elections for the presidency, National Assembly, and provincial legislatures in 2006. KABILA was inaugurated president in December 2006. The National Assembly was installed in September 2006. Its president, Vital KAMERHE, was chosen in December. Provincial assemblies were constituted in early 2007, and elected governors and national senators in January 2007.