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Lymph fluid is carried to your lymph nodes by lymphatic vessels. Your lymph nodes filter out harmful substances and waste products. They also contain immune cells that destroy cancer cells and bacteria. The filtered fluid is then returned to your blood circulation. If you have an infection or cancer, a lymph node may become swollen. If you are concerned about your lymph nodes, speak to your doctor. Lymph nodes and cancer Sometimes cancer can start in the lymph nodes (such as in lymphoma), but cancer can also spread from one part of the body to another through lymph nodes. If a person has cancer, doctors examine lymph nodes carefully to see whether or not they are affected by cancer. They can do this by: feeling all the nodes in the body getting scans, for example a CT scan removing nodes near the cancer, then examining them under a microscope taking a biopsy of the lymph nodes near the cancer, then examining them under a microscope. This is done to see if the cancer has spread or not. This helps doctors work out the best treatment for the cancer.
23 Jun 2017
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The lymphatic system forms a major part of our immune response to the continual exposure to micro-organisms. Some such organisms are potentially harmful and even fatal as there are some infections that our immune system is not equipped to deal with.6-9 The lymphatic system is not the first line of defense against infectious agents such as bacteria and viruses however, as these organisms must first content with: * Physical barriers such as the skin * Toxic barriers such as the acidic contents of the stomach * Competition posed by the so-called friendly organisms in the body that are normally not harmful and are often beneficial. Despite the effectiveness of these barriers, numerous pathogens do successfully invade the body, whereupon they can cause infection if they are not promptly dealt with by the immune system. A number of different immune cells and special molecules work together to fight off these pathogens, with complex cascades of immune activity designed to recognize and destroy the foreign material. The lymphatic system plays a key role in this activity as lymph fluid containing foreign organisms is drained from the tissues and is presented to immune system cells. These cells can then form antibodies to pathogens or produce antibodies from memory if they have previously encountered the specific pathogen.
19 Jun 2017
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Diseases and disorders of the lymphatic system are typically treated by immunologists. Vascular surgeons, dermatologists, oncologists and physiatrists also get involved in treatment of various lymphatic ailments. There are also lymphedema therapists who specialize in the manual drainage of the lymphatic system. The most common diseases of the lymphatic system are enlargement of the lymph nodes (also known as lymphadenopathy), swelling due to lymph node blockage (also known as lymphedema) and cancers involving the lymphatic system, according to Dr. James Hamrick, chief of medical oncology and hematology at Kaiser Permanente in Atlanta. When bacteria are recognized in the lymph fluid, the lymph nodes make more infection-fighting white blood cells, which can cause swelling. The swollen nodes can sometimes be felt in the neck, underarms and groin, according to the NLM. Lymphadenopathy is usually caused by infection, inflammation, or cancer. Infections that cause lymphadenopathy include bacterial infections such as strep throat, locally infected skin wounds, or viral infections such as mononucleosis or HIV infection, Hamrick stated. “The enlargement of the lymph nodes may be localized to the area of infection, as in strep throat, or more generalized as in HIV infection. In some areas of the body the enlarged lymph nodes are palpable, while others are to deep to feel and can be seen on CT scan or MRI.” Inflammatory or autoimmune conditions occur when a person's immune system is active, and can result in enlargement of lymph nodes. This can happen in lupus, according to Hamrick.
17 Jun 2017
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The lymphatic system consists of all lymphatic vessels and lymphoid organs. For example, the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus as well as the lymphatic tissue found in the small intestine (Peyer’s patches) and throat (adenoid tonsils, palatine and tubal tonsils), to name a few, all represent lymphatic organs. Hence, rather than representing a single organ, the lymphatic system comprises a circulatory network of vessels and lymphoid tissue and cells in every part of the body. It works together closely with the blood-producing (haematopoietic) system in the bone marrow, thereby playing a vital role in immune responses to protect the body from various pathogens. Also, the lymphatic vessel network helps transporting nutrients and waste products in the body. Lymph and lymph vessels The lymphatic system with its vessel network is – apart from the circulatory system, with which it is closely connected – the most important transport system in the human body. The human body produces about two litres of lymph every day. This clear to yellow-tinted fluid is formed when blood plasma exits the capillary blood vessels and fillls the small spaces (interstices) between and around body tissues and cells before being collected through small lymphatic vessels (lymph capillaries). Lymph transports nutrients and oxygen for the cells as well as immune cells (such as lymphocytes). While circulating through the interstitial spaces of various tissues, lymph also picks up many of the body’s waste products and carbon dioxide. Apart from that, lymph transports fat from the intestines to the blood. After having been collected by the lymph capillaries, lymph is transported through larger lymphatic vessels to the lymph nodes, where lymphocytes purge it before it is emptied into the large (subclavian) veins close to the heart, where it blends again with the blood.
9 Jun 2017
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The lymphatic system plays a prominent role in immune function, fatty acid absorption, and removal of interstitial fluid from tissues. KEY POINTS The lymphatic system is a linear network of lymphatic vessels and secondary lymphoid organs. It is the site of many immune system functions as well as its own functions. It is responsible for the removal of interstitial fluid from tissues into lymph fluid, which is filtered and brought back into the bloodstream through the subclavian veins near the heart. Edema accumulates in tissues during inflammation or when lymph drainage is impaired. It absorbs and transports fatty acids and fats as chylomicrons from the digestive system. It transports white blood cells and dendritic cells to lymph nodes where adaptive immune responses are often triggered. Tumors can spread through lymphatic transport. TERMS white blood cell A type of blood cell involved with an immune response. Many white blood cells (primarily lymphocytes) are transported by the lymphatic system. interstitial fluid Also called tissue fluid, a solution that bathes and surrounds the cells of multicellular animals.
8 Jun 2017
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The lymphatic system is a network of tissues and organs that help rid the body of toxins, waste and other unwanted materials. The primary function of the lymphatic system is to transport lymph, a fluid containing infection-fighting white blood cells, throughout the body. The lymphatic system primarily consists of lymphatic vessels, which are similar to the circulatory system's veins and capillaries. The vessels are connected to lymph nodes, where the lymph is filtered. The tonsils, adenoids, spleen and thymus are all part of the lymphatic system. Description of the lymphatic system There are hundreds of lymph nodes in the human body. They are located deep inside the body, such as around the lungs and heart, or closer to the surface, such as under the arm or groin, according to the American Cancer Society. The spleen, which is located on the left side of the body just above the kidney, is the largest lymphatic organ, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). It controls the amount of red blood cells and blood storage in the body, and helps to fight infection. If the spleen detects potentially dangerous bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms in the blood, it — along with the lymph nodes — creates white blood cells called lymphocytes, which act as defenders against invaders. The lymphocytes produce antibodies to kill the foreign microorganisms and stop infections from spreading. Humans can live without a spleen, although people who have lost their spleen to disease or injury are more prone to infections.
7 Jun 2017
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Balanced Health Today Call Now 1(888)277-4980 Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped glands throughout the body. They are part of the lymph system, which carries fluid lymph fluid, nutrients, and waste material between the body tissues and the bloodstream. The lymph system is an important part of the immune system, the body's defense system against disease. The lymph nodes filter lymph fluid as it flows through them, trapping bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances, which are then destroyed by special white blood cells called lymphocytes. Lymph nodes may be found singly or in groups. And they may be as small as the head of a pin or as large as an olive. Groups of lymph nodes can be felt in the neck, groin, and underarms. Lymph nodes generally are not tender or painful. Most lymph nodes in the body cannot be felt. Our bodies have a network of lymph vessels and lymph nodes. Lymph is pronounced limf. This network is a part of the body’s immune system. It collects fluid, waste material, and other things like viruses and bacteria) that are in the body tissues, outside the bloodstream. Lymph vessels are a lot like the veins that collect and carry blood through the body. But instead of carrying blood, these vessels carry the clear watery fluid called lymph. Lymph fluid flows out from capillary walls to bathe the body’s tissue cells. It carries oxygen and other nutrients to the cells, and carries away waste products like carbon dioxide CO2 that flow out of the cells. Lymph fluid also contains white blood cells, which help fight infections. Lymph fluid would build up and cause swelling if it were not drained in some way. That’s the role of the lymph vessels. Lymph vessels draw up the lymph fluid from around the cells to send it towards the chest. There, lymph fluid collects into a large vessel that drains into a blood vessel near the heart.
28 Apr 2017
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Balanced Health Today Call Now 1(888)277-4980 The spleen is a brownish fist-sized organ located in the upper left side of the abdomen, tucked into a space between the stomach, pancreas and left kidney. It’s one of those organs that people know about, but aren’t sure what it does. Essentially, the spleen is a storage container and filter for blood, though it is part of the lymphatic system. In fact, it’s the largest lymph node in the body. One of its tasks is to remove harmful bacteria and viruses in the blood stream. Its other major task is removing or storing certain blood cells. The spleen is not part of the digestive system however is connected to the blood vessels of both the stomach and the pancreas. The spleen is situated on the left side of our body; under the ribs and above the stomach. It is a part of the lymphatic system and can weigh between 150 – 200 grams in a healthy adult and is approximately 10-12 cm in its longest dimension. Two types of spleen tissue: red pulp and white pulp The spleen is composed of two primary regions namely, red pulp and white pulp. The red pulp makes up for little more than three-fourth of the spleen. A region designated marginal zone is a transition area that separates it from the white pulp. Red pulp Red pulp is red because it has many small cavities sinusoids where the spleen stores blood in case of injury or other situations where the body needs extra blood. This blood reserve has a high count of platelets, an essential component for blood coagulation to help stop bleeding. Red pulp also removes and recycles components of old, damaged and dead red blood cells. White pulp White pulp is associated with the lymphatic function of the spleen. Most of this tissue consists of lymph-related nodules, called Malphighian corpuscles. The white pulp works as part of the immune system, producing antibodies immunoglobin that recognize and neutralize harmful antigens bacteria and viruses in the blood. It also produces and stores white
25 Apr 2017
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Balanced Health Today Call Now 1(888)277-4980 LYMPHATIC SYSTEM The lymphatic system is a vascular network of tubules and ducts that collect, filter, and return lymph to blood circulation. Lymph is a clear fluid that comes from blood plasma, which exits blood vessels at capillary beds. This fluid becomes the interstitial fluid that surrounds cells. Lymph contains water, proteins, salts, lipids, white blood cells, and other substances that must be returned to the blood. The primary functions of the lymphatic system are to drain and return interstitial fluid to the blood, to absorb and return lipids from the digestive system to the blood, and to filter fluid of pathogens, damaged cells, cellular debris, and cancerous cells. Lymphatic System Structures The major components of the lymphatic system include lymph, lymphatic vessels, and lymphatic organs that contain lymphoid tissues. Lymphatic Vessels Lymphatic vessels are structures that absorb fluid that diffuses from blood vessel capillaries into surrounding tissues. This fluid is directed toward lymph nodes to be filtered and ultimately re-enters blood circulation through veins located near the heart. The smallest lymphatic vessels are called lymph capillaries. Lymphatic capillaries come together to form larger lymphatic vessels. Lymphatic vessels from various regions of the body merge to form larger vessels called lymphatic trunks. Lymphatic trunks merge to form two larger lymphatic ducts. Lymphatic ducts return lymph to blood circulation by draining lymph into the subclavian veins in the neck. Lymph Nodes Lymphatic vessels transport lymph to lymph nodes. These structures filter lymph of pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses . Lymph nodes also filter cellular waste, dead cells, and cancerous cells. Lymph nodes house immune cells called lymphocytes. These cells are necessary for the development of humoral immunity defense prior to cell infection and cell-mediated immunity defense after cell infection. Lymph
23 Apr 2017
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Balanced Health Today Call Now 1(888)277-4980 The major components of the lymphatic system include lymph, lymphatic vessels, and lymphatic organs that contain lymphoid tissues. Lymphatic Vessels Lymphatic vessels are structures that absorb fluid that diffuses from blood vessel capillaries into surrounding tissues. This fluid is directed toward lymph nodes to be filtered and ultimately re-enters blood circulation through veins located near the heart. The smallest lymphatic vessels are called lymph capillaries. Lymphatic capillaries come together to form larger lymphatic vessels. Lymphatic vessels from various regions of the body merge to form larger vessels called lymphatic trunks. Lymphatic trunks merge to form two larger lymphatic ducts. Lymphatic ducts return lymph to blood circulation by draining lymph into the subclavian veins in the neck. Lymph Nodes Lymphatic vessels transport lymph to lymph nodes. These structures filter lymph of pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses . Lymph nodes also filter cellular waste, dead cells, and cancerous cells. Lymph nodes house immune cells called lymphocytes. These cells are necessary for the development of humoral immunity (defense prior to cell infection) and cell-mediated immunity (defense after cell infection). Lymph enters a node through afferent lymphatic vessels, filters as it passes through channels in the node called sinuses, and leaves the node through an efferent lymphatic vessel. Thymus The thymus gland is the main organ of the lymphatic system. Its primary function is to promote the development of specific cells of the immune system called T-lymphocytes. Once mature, these cells leave the thymus and are transported via blood vessels to the lymph nodes and spleen. T-lymphocytes are responsible for cell-mediated immunity, which is an immune response that involves the activation of certain immune cells to fight infection. In addition to immune function, the thymus also produces hormones that promote growth and
19 Apr 2017
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Balanced Health Today Call Now 1(888)277-4980 The lymphatic system includes a system of lymphatic capillaries, vessels, nodes, and ducts that collects and transports lymph, which is a clear to slightly yellowish fluid, similar to the plasma in blood. The lymphatic system is important for maintaining your body’s fluid balance, and it helps transport some fats. It also works along with the rest of the immune system namely, the leukocytes to fight infections. In addition to being present in the lymph nodes, lymphatic tissue is also found in a few additional spaces of your body. The lymphoid organs assist the lymphatic system. They include the thymus, spleen, tonsils, and appendix, along with some special tissue in the gut: The thymus The thymus is located in the thoracic cavity, just under the neck. It’s made up of two lobes of lymphoid tissue. Each lobe has a medulla surrounded by a cortex. The cortex is where immature lymphocytes first go to become T cells, but their maturation finishes in the medulla. The thymus is large during childhood, but during the early teen years it starts to decrease in size. Why does it get smaller or to be more clinical, involute? No one knows it’s still a mystery. The spleen The spleen is located in the upper-left part of the abdomen. It’s tucked up under the ribs, so you generally can’t palpate it medically examine by touch unless it’s enlarged. The spleen’s main function is to filter the blood. It removes old or damaged red blood cells, which are phagocytized by macrophages. The spleen also detects viruses and bacteria and triggers the release of lymphocytes. The tonsils The tonsils are masses of lymphoid tissue found in the back of the throat and nasal cavity. They’re part of the immune system, so they help fight infections, but removing the tonsils doesn’t appear to increase your risk of infections. Tonsillitis occurs when the tonsils become infected. They’re usually easy to see by shining a light into your patient’s
19 Apr 2017
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Balanced Health Today Call Now 1(888)277-4980 Certain diseases can affect the lymph nodes, the spleen, or the collections of lymphoid tissue in certain areas of the body. Lymphadenopathy. This is a condition where the lymph nodes become swollen or enlarged, usually because of a nearby infection. Swollen lymph nodes in the neck, for example, can be caused by a throat infection. Once the infection is treated, the swelling usually goes away. If several lymph node groups throughout the body are swollen, that can indicate a more serious disease that needs further investigation by a doctor. Lymphadenitis. Also called adenitis, this inflammation of the lymph node is caused by an infection of the tissue in the node. The infection can cause the skin overlying the lymph node to swell, redden, and feel warm and tender to the touch. It usually affects the lymph nodes in the neck and is often caused by a bacterial infection that can be easily treated with an antibiotic. Lymphomas. These cancers start in the lymph nodes when lymphocytes undergo changes and start to multiply out of control. The lymph nodes swell, and the cancer cells crowd out healthy cells and may cause tumors solid growths in other parts of the body. Splenomegaly enlarged spleen. In someone who is healthy, the spleen is usually small enough that it can't be felt when you press on the abdomen. But certain diseases can cause the spleen to swell to several times its normal size. Most commonly, this is due to a viral infection, such as mononucleosis. But in some cases, more serious diseases such as cancer can cause the spleen to expand. If you have an enlarged spleen, your doctor will probably tell you to avoid contact sports like football for a while. If you're hit, the swollen spleen is vulnerable to rupturing bursting. And if it ruptures, it can cause a huge amount of blood to be lost. Tonsillitis. Tonsillitis is caused by an infection of the tonsils, the lymphoid tissues in the back of the mouth at the to
19 Apr 2017
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Balanced Health Today Call Now 1(888)277-4980 Carrying Away Waste Lymph fluid drains into tiny vessels called lymph capillaries. The fluid is then pushed along through the capillaries when a person breathes or the muscles contract. The lymph capillaries are very thin. They have many tiny openings that let gases, water, and nutrients pass through to the surrounding cells, nourishing them and taking away waste products. When lymph fluid passes through in this way it is called interstitial fluid. Lymph vessels collect the interstitial fluid and then return it to the bloodstream by emptying it into large veins in the upper chest, near the neck. Fighting Infection Lymph fluid enters the lymph nodes, where macrophages fight off foreign bodies like bacteria, removing them from the bloodstream. After these substances have been filtered out, the lymph fluid leaves the lymph nodes and returns to the veins, where it re-enters the bloodstream. When a person has an infection, germs collect in the lymph nodes. If the throat is infected, for example, the lymph nodes of the neck may swell. That's why doctors check for swollen lymph nodes sometime called swollen glands but they're actually lymph nodes in the neck when your throat is infected.
17 Apr 2017
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Balanced Health Today Call Now 1(888)277-4980 The lymphatic system is an extensive drainage network that helps keep bodily fluid levels in balance and defends the body against infections. The lymphatic system is made up of a network of lymphatic vessels. These vessels carry lymph — a clear, watery fluid containing protein molecules, salts, glucose, urea, and other substances throughout the body. The spleen is located in the upper left part of the abdomen under the ribcage. It works as part of the lymphatic system to protect the body, clearing worn-out red blood cells and other foreign bodies from the bloodstream to help fight off infection. Why They're Important One of the lymphatic system's major jobs is to collect extra lymph fluid from body tissues and return it to the blood. This process is important because water, proteins, and other substances are continuously leaking out of tiny blood capillaries into the surrounding body tissues. If the lymphatic system didn't drain the excess fluid, it would build up in the body's tissues and they would swell. The lymphatic system also helps defend the body against germs like viruses, bacteria, and fungi that can cause illnesses. Those germs are filtered out in the lymph nodes, which are small masses of tissue located along the network of lymph vessels. The nodes house lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. Some of those lymphocytes make antibodies, special proteins that fight off germs and stop infections from spreading by trapping disease-causing germs and destroying them. The spleen also helps the body fight infection. The spleen contains lymphocytes and another kind of white blood cell called macrophages, which engulf and destroy bacteria, dead tissue, and foreign matter and remove them from the blood passing through the spleen. The lymphatic system is a network of very small tubes vessels that drain lymph fluid from all over the body. The major parts of the lymph tissue are located in the bone marrow, spleen,
16 Apr 2017
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Balanced Health Today Call Now 1(888)277-4980 The immune system includes a variety of defenses against viruses, bacteria, fungal infections, and parasites such as thread worms. The lympatic system is part of the broader Immune System. Innate immune system This are the non-specific, unchanging lines of defenses which include: Physical and chemical barriers to pathogens. Producing cytokines and other chemical factors to recruit immune cells to sites of infection. Activates the complement cascade to identify bacteria, activate cells and to promote clearance of dead cells or antibody complexes. Identifies and removes foreign substances present in organs, tissues, the blood and lymph, by specialised white blood cells. Activation of the adaptive immune system, through a process known as antigen presentation. Adaptive immune system Adaptive (or acquired) immunity is where immunological memory is made after an initial response to a new pathogen, leading to an enhanced response to future exposure to that same pathogen. This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination. This is essential because bacteria and viruses are continually adapting and evolving in an 'arms race' with our immune systems. Features of the adaptive immune system include: Recognition of specific "non-self" antigens, during the process of antigen presentation. The generation of responses tailored to destroy specific pathogens or pathogen-infected cells. Development of immunological memory, in which each pathogen is "remembered" by signature antibodies or T cell receptors. These memory cells can be called upon to quickly eliminate a pathogen should subsequent infections occur.
15 Apr 2017
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Balanced Health Today Call Now 1(888)277-4980 What Is Lymph Node Inflammation? Lymph nodes, or lymph glands, are small, oval-shaped organs that contain immune cells to attack and kill foreign invaders, such as viruses. They are an important part of the body’s immune system. Lymph nodes are found in various parts of the body, including the neck, armpits, and groin. They are linked by lymphatic vessels, which carry lymph a clear fluid containing white blood cells and dead and diseased tissue for disposal throughout the body. The primary function of lymph nodes is to harbor the body’s disease-fighting cells. When you are sick and your lymph nodes send out disease-fighting cells and compounds, they may become inflamed or painful. The condition of having inflamed lymph nodes is referred to as lymphadenitis. Lymph node inflammation can occur for a variety of reasons. Any infection or virus, including the common cold, can cause your lymph nodes to swell. Cancer–including blood cancer–can also cause lymph node inflammation. What Are the Symptoms of Lymph Node Inflammation? Lymph node inflammation can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the cause of the swelling and the location of the swollen lymph nodes. Common symptoms accompanying lymph node inflammation include: upper respiratory symptoms, such as a fever, runny nose, or sore throat tender, swollen lymph glands in the neck, armpits, and groin limb swelling could indicate lymph system blockage night sweats hardening and expansion of the lymph nodes could indicate the presence of a tumor
13 Apr 2017
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