How to Deal with an Abnormal Pap Smear|what can make a pap smear abnormal
Doctors regularly perform Pap smears (also called Pap tests) on female patients, typically during routine pelvic exams, in order to check for abnormal cell changes on the cervix. If untreated, these cell changes can sometimes lead to cervical cancer. “Negative” or “normal” results mean that no abnormal cervical cells are present and no follow-up is necessary until your next regularly scheduled exam. “Positive” or “abnormal” results, however, indicate a potential problem.
Pregnancy Journey from weeks 4 through 26. Due June 10th, 2008. After dealing with infertility due to PCOS(Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome), many tests and 3 rounds of Clomid(medication used to induce ovulation) We are overjoyed to say that We are FINALLY pregnant!!!
What is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)?
Polycystic (pah-lee-SIS-tik) ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a health problem that can affect a woman's menstrual cycle, ability to have children, hormones, heart, blood vessels, and appearance. With PCOS, women typically have:
high levels of androgens (AN-druh-junz). These are sometimes called male hormones, although females also make them.
missed or irregular periods
many small cysts (sists) in their ovaries. Cysts are fluid-filled sacs.
Lack of ovulation is usually the reason for fertility problems in women with PCOS. Several medications that stimulate ovulation can help women with PCOS become pregnant. Even so, other reasons for infertility in both the woman and man should be ruled out before fertility medications are used. Also, there is an increased risk for multiple births (twins, triplets) with fertility medications. For most patients, clomiphene citrate (Clomid®, Serophene®) is the first choice therapy to stimulate ovulation.
What tests are used to diagnose polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)?
There is no single test to diagnose PCOS. Your doctor will take a medical history, perform a physical exam, and possibly take some tests to rule out other causes of your symptoms. During the physical exam the doctor will want to measure your blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and waist size. He or she also will check out the areas of increased hair growth, so try to allow the natural hair growth for a few days before the visit. Your doctor might want to do a pelvic exam to see if your ovaries are enlarged or swollen by the increased number of small cysts. A vaginal ultrasound also might be used to examine the ovaries for cysts and check out the endometrium, the lining of the uterus. The uterine lining may become thicker if your periods are not regular. You also might have blood taken to check your hormone levels and to measure glucose (sugar) levels.