Lung disease generates three major symptoms—coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. It also predisposes the lungs to infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia. Cancer is a late effect, requiring prolonged exposure to an irritant. In the case of tobacco, an average of a pack of cigarettes a day for forty years, or two packs a day for twenty years, will greatly increase the risk of lung cancer.
A history of exposure combined with a chest x ray and lung function studies completes the diagnostic evaluation in most cases. Lung function measures the amount of air breathed in and out, the speed it moves, and the effectiveness of oxygen exchange with the blood. If the cause still is unclear, a lung biopsy aids diagnosis.
Eliminating the offending irritant and early antibiotics for infection are primary. There are many techniques available to remove excess mucus from the lungs. Respiratory therapists are trained in these methods. Finally, there are several machines available to enrich the oxygen content of breathed air.
A surgical treatment called lung reduction volume surgery is emerging as a treatment for certain people over age 65 with severe emphysema. It promises substantial return of lung function for selected patients by cutting away diseased parts of the lungs so that healthy tissue functions better. In the fall of 2003, Medicare announced that it would begin paying for the surgery.
How to Prepare for Breast Cancer Chemotherapy|first chemotherapy treatment
Chemotherapy is a treatment option for breast cancer. However, it comes with a multitude of side effects that take a toll on both your physical and mental health. Preparing for chemotherapy for breast cancer can help reduce your stress level by helping you understand what to expect.
Learn as much as you can about your particular treatment plan and how chemotherapy may affect your body. Ask about how long treatments will take and how many chemotherapy sessions the doctor has prescribed.
Discuss in detail with your doctor the particular drug cocktail that will be part of your chemotherapy. Do some research. Remember that you have the final say in what goes in your body for treatment.
Find a breast cancer support group so that you can share some of your concerns and learn from others. While knowledge can help ease some anxiety, remember that not everyone will be affected in the same way.
Get pre-chemotherapy tests, such as X-rays and heart scans. You'll also need to decide how you want your chemo to be delivered: through a regular IV or a port. A port requires minor surgery prior to chemotherapy.
Focus on improving your overall health to reduce potential chemotherapy side effects.
Get plenty of sleep overnight and rest often during the day if possible.
Minimize stressful situations. Try meditation and yoga as relaxation techniques or take a bubble bath and listen to relaxing music. Deep breathing exercises can also help.
Eat a balanced diet with plenty of vegetables, fruits and whole grains.
Avoid infections by steering clear of people who are sick. Schedule an
High-energy electromagnetic waves (x-rays, gamma rays)
Particles (alpha particles, beta particles, neutrons)
Alpha particles are energetic helium nuclei emitted by some radionuclides with high atomic numbers (eg, plutonium, radium, uranium); they cannot penetrate skin beyond a shallow depth (< 0.1 mm).
Beta particles are high-energy electrons that are emitted from the nuclei of unstable atoms (eg, cesium-137, iodine-131). These particles can penetrate more deeply into skin (1 to 2 cm) and cause both epithelial and subepithelial damage.
Neutrons are electrically neutral particles emitted by a few radionuclides (eg, californium-252) and produced in nuclear fission reactions (eg, in nuclear reactors); their depth of tissue penetration varies from a few millimeters to several tens of centimeters, depending on their energy. They collide with the nuclei of stable atoms, resulting in emission of energetic protons, alpha and beta particles, and gamma radiation.
Gamma radiation and x-rays are electromagnetic radiation (ie, photons) of very short wavelength that can penetrate deeply into tissue (many centimeters). While some photons deposit all their energy in the body, other photons of the same energy may only deposit a fraction of their energy and others may pass completely through the body without interacting.
Because of these characteristics, alpha and beta particles cause the most damage when the radioactive atoms that emit them are within the body (internal contamination) or, in the case of beta-emitters, directly on the body; only tissue in close proximity to the radionuclide is affected. Gamma rays and x-rays can cause damage distant from their source and are typically responsible for acute radiation syndromes (ARS—see Radiation Exposure and Contamination : Acute radiation syndromes (ARS)).
Radiation injury is damage to tissues caused by exposure to ionizing radiation.
Large doses of ionizing radiation can cause acute illness by reducing the production of blood cells and damaging the digestive tract.
A very large dose of ionizing radiation can also damage the heart and blood vessels (cardiovascular system), brain, and skin.
Radiation injury due to large and very large doses is referred to as a tissue reaction. The dose needed to cause visible tissue injury varies with tissue type.
Ionizing radiation can increase the risk of cancer.
Radiation exposure of sperm and egg cells carries little increased risk of genetic defects in offspring.
Doctors remove as much external and internal (material that is inhaled or ingested) radioactive material as possible and treat symptoms and complications of radiation injury.
In general, ionizing radiation refers to high-energy electromagnetic waves (x-rays and gamma rays) and particles (alpha particles, beta particles, and neutrons) that are capable of stripping electrons from atoms (ionization). Ionization changes the chemistry of affected atoms and any molecules containing those atoms. By changing molecules in the highly ordered environment of the cell, ionizing radiation can disrupt and damage cells. Cellular damage can cause illness, increase the risk of developing cancer, or both.
To celebrate the release of Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows Part 1 on Blu-Ray and DVD we talk to the stars at the Apollo Theatre and the fans themselves at HMV Oxford Street.
The explosive action movie is out now on Blu-ray and DVD.
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We talk to the stars of Harry Potter about the final film coming out on Blu-ray and DVD.
Watch highlights from the Rise Planet of the Apes Blu-ray and DVD launch, with passers-by and free-runners queuing to unleash their inner primate in a giant ape playground in London’s Potter’s Field.
The cast and crew of the film sit down to celebrate the release of the action movie on Blu-ray and DVD.
We talk to star Gary Oldman, director Tomas Alfredson and writer Peter Straughn about this gripping thriller now on Blu-ray and DVD.
A student has a 12 hour sleep in Waterloo station to promote the Blu-ray and DVD release of Sleeping Beauty.
The U.S. military makes a scarred bounty hunter with warrants on his own head an offer he cannot refuse: in exchange for his freedom, he must stop a terrorist who is ready to unleash Hell on Earth.
We head to Egg Mountain to talk to Steven Spielberg's dinosaur guru, Doctor Jack Horner.
London's Victoria Station mutates with a special visit from a couple of mutants, and Jason Flemyng sits down to talk about the hit action movie.