High-energy electromagnetic waves (x-rays, gamma rays)
Particles (alpha particles, beta particles, neutrons)
Alpha particles are energetic helium nuclei emitted by some radionuclides with high atomic numbers (eg, plutonium, radium, uranium); they cannot penetrate skin beyond a shallow depth (< 0.1 mm).
Beta particles are high-energy electrons that are emitted from the nuclei of unstable atoms (eg, cesium-137, iodine-131). These particles can penetrate more deeply into skin (1 to 2 cm) and cause both epithelial and subepithelial damage.
Neutrons are electrically neutral particles emitted by a few radionuclides (eg, californium-252) and produced in nuclear fission reactions (eg, in nuclear reactors); their depth of tissue penetration varies from a few millimeters to several tens of centimeters, depending on their energy. They collide with the nuclei of stable atoms, resulting in emission of energetic protons, alpha and beta particles, and gamma radiation.
Gamma radiation and x-rays are electromagnetic radiation (ie, photons) of very short wavelength that can penetrate deeply into tissue (many centimeters). While some photons deposit all their energy in the body, other photons of the same energy may only deposit a fraction of their energy and others may pass completely through the body without interacting.
Because of these characteristics, alpha and beta particles cause the most damage when the radioactive atoms that emit them are within the body (internal contamination) or, in the case of beta-emitters, directly on the body; only tissue in close proximity to the radionuclide is affected. Gamma rays and x-rays can cause damage distant from their source and are typically responsible for acute radiation syndromes (ARS—see Radiation Exposure and Contamination : Acute radiation syndromes (ARS)).
Treatments for swollen lymph nodes should address your discomfort as well as other symptoms that accompany your condition. Home remedies can often provide adequate relief, but if they appear to have no affect you should contact your doctor to determine if medical intervention is necessary.
In most cases, home care can help relieve swollen lymph nodes. Applying a hot compress can help relieve the discomfort, though it should not be so hot as to scald the skin. If you are suffering from an infection in the throat, or if the sinuses are inflamed, sipping warm liquids such as chicken broth or tea can help provide relief. It is common for lymph nodes to remain swollen for several days as your body fights off the infection.
Your lymph nodes will not return to their normal size until the infection in the body has been distinguished. If this is taking a long time or your other symptoms are causing discomfort you should see your doctor to get antibiotics to help ward off the infection. Your doctor will perform tests to help determine what type of infection you are suffering from so they can recommend appropriate treatment. It may be necessary to take blood samples or perform x-rays or a CT scan to see if there are tumors or other serious conditions present in the body causing the lymph nodes to become swollen. The lymph nodes behind the ears are especially sensitive to cancerous cells, so it is important to seek medical attention if these appear to be acting in an irregular way.
If your lymph nodes have been swollen for several weeks, if they feel hard or fixed in place, they become tender or red, or they feel irregular then you should see a doctor to determine what might be wrong. See a doctor right away if you start to experience night sweats, fever or unexplained weight loss. This is a sign that you may be dealing with a more serious condition that is affecting the behind the ear. Check for swelling near the collar bone, or around the n
Best moments of the K-1 fighter Ray Sefo... I think this hard hitting New Zealander is the best and the most entertaining fighter. His matches are never boring...
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