Scientists have shown that through eye exams at the crib-side, doctors can identify infants who are most likely to benefit from early treatment for a potentially blinding eye condition called retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), resulting in better vision for many children.
ROP is one of the most common causes of vision loss in children and affects an estimated 15,000 premature infants born each year in the United States. At-risk infants generally are born before 31 weeks of the mother's pregnancy and weigh 2.75 pounds or less. When a baby is born prematurely, growth of the blood vessels in the back of the eye may stop before the vessels reach the edge of the retina. In these newborns, abnormal, fragile blood vessels and retinal tissue may develop at the edges of the normal tissue. The abnormal vessels can cause scarring that may pull on the retina and cause it to detach.
About 90 percent of infants with ROP have a mild form that does not require treatment, but those who have a more severe form can develop lifelong visual impairment, and possibly blindness.
The current Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity (ETROP) study followed 370 children who, as infants, had been treated early or managed conventionally for ROP. Results of the study confirm that at 6 years of age the visual benefit of early treatment for infants with certain eye characteristics continues. The research, published April 12 online in Archives of Ophthalmology, was supported by the National Eye Institute, part of the National Institutes of Health.
This study has set the standard of care for infants with ROP by showing that early treatment of selected high-risk premature babies and careful monitoring of others has positive longer-term results on vision. However, additional research is needed to identify still better methods for the prevention and treatment of severe ROP.
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LEVEL Study Published in British Journal of Ophthalmology Evaluates Macugen as Maintenance Treatment for Patients with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Palm Beach Gardens, FL - May 18, 2010 - Eyetech Inc. announced today that the British Journal of Ophthalmology (BJO) published online results from the LEVEL study evaluating MacugenTM (pegaptanib sodium) as a maintenance therapy in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This large, open-label, uncontrolled, exploratory study enrolled 568 patients who had been treated one to three times for neovascular AMD, primarily with a non-selective VEGF-inhibitor such as ranibizumab or bevacizumab. During this induction phase, the mean visual acuity improved by 15.9 letters (49.6 letters to 65.5 letters). After entering the study, patients were switched to Macugen, a selective VEGF-inhibitor, with the possibility of using additional treatments if needed. At the end of this 54-week maintenance phase, mean final visual acuity was 61.8 letters. From the beginning of the induction phase to the end of maintenance phase, an approximately 16-month follow-up, 41 percent of patients gained at least 3 lines of visual acuity.
The study authors concluded that this induction-maintenance treatment strategy, using non-selective VEGF inhibitors then switching to Macugen, a selective VEGF inhibitor, may be an option for the long-term treatment of neovascular AMD. "A treatment protocol that combines the efficacy of a non-selective VEGF inhibitor with the safety profile of a selective VEGF inhibitor may be an attractive option, since elderly patients with AMD are already at increased risk of hypertension, stroke and other cardiovascular disease," said Thomas R. Friberg, M.D., lead investigator of the LEVEL study and Professor of Ophthalmology and Bio-Engineering at the University of Pittsburgh.
"This treatment approach may be of particular interest to retina specialists and their AMD patients with cardiovascular co-morbidities who require long-term treatment with anti-VEGF drugs to manage their neovascular AMD," continued Dr. Friberg. "Unlike non-selective VEGF inhibitors that should be administered monthly, Macugen is administered every six weeks. This substantially reduces the treatment burden on patients and their families."
Despite the limitations of an uncontrolled study, Macugen when used as a maintenance therapy showed adverse events rates similar to those observed in the pivotal Phase III V.I.S.I.O.N trial at one year. During one year of follow-up, there was no evidence of increased risk of endophthalmitis, retinal detachment of traumatic cataract. Most common ocular adverse events were punctate keratitis, eye pain and vitreous floaters. Reports of serious non-ocular, vascular events (including cardiovascular events) were rare.
About the LEVEL Study
LEVEL (EvaLuation of Efficacy and safety in maintaining Visual acuity with sEquential treatment of neovascuLar AMD) is a Phase IV, prospective, open-label, uncontrolled exploratory study designed to assess the efficacy of Macugen as a maintenance therapy in neovascular AMD patients who had at least one but not more than three prior treatments (induction phase) 30 to 120 days prior to study entry. Patients who showed significant clinical and/or anatomical improvement in their neovascular AMD, as determined by the study investigator, were enrolled in the LEVEL study and administered intravitreal injections of Macugen 0.3 mg every six weeks for 48 weeks with follow-up through week 54.
Additional treatments with other agents were allowed in the study eye at investigators' discretion for deteriorating AMD. Half of patients (283/568) required an additional treatment during the study, which was given approximately 5 months post-baseline on average. Of those who received an additional treatment, 46% required only one such treatment.
The results from the exploratory trial suggest that this induction/maintenance regimen may be a promising approach in the long-term treatment of ...
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(Psalms 139:14) I praise you because I am fearfully and wonderfully made.
And just how fearfully and wonderfully made are we? Well here are a few examples:
There are about....
One-hundred-thousand hairs on the average human scalp.
There are about....
One-quadrillion "connections" (synapses) between the one-hundred-billion cells (neurons) of an adult brain. The brain's one hundred billion neurons match the number of stars in the Milky Way, and the number of connections active in the brain's functioning verge on the number of stars in the entire known universe. To fill the capacity of all those synapses, a person would have to learn a one-billion volume encyclopedia (a million "letters" per encyclopedia). That’s enough to fill a bookshelf 10,000 miles long. In contrast, the Library of Congress (The largest library in the world) only has 17 million volumes. The brain is the most complex structure in the known universe, far surpassing, by many orders of magnitude, the most advanced supercomputers. One human brain generates more electrical impulses in a single day than all of the world's telephones put together. This is all done with the power equivalent of a single flashlight, 12 Watts. All of our senses (sight, smell, hearing, taste, feeling) are transformed to electrical impulses which are sent to general regions of synapses in the brain where we, after complex transformations, finally become conscious of it. To accomplish all this thinking, the brain uses 20 to 25% of the body’s oxygen and 20% of its blood sugar, even though it is only 2% (3 pounds) of the body’s weight. You don't consume any more calories studying for a test than you do gazing at a cloud.
There are about....
Seven-million shades of color the human eye can detect. It takes 200 million billionths of a second for the retina to create vision from light. The eye is so sensitive it can detect a candle one mile away. There is a biological computer in the retina which processes and compresses the information from those millions of light sensitive cells before sending it to the visual cortex where the complex stream of information is then decompressed. While today's digital hardware is extremely impressive, it is clear that the human retina's real-time performance goes unchallenged. To actually simulate 10 milliseconds of the complete processing of even a single nerve cell from the retina would require the solution of about 500 simultaneous nonlinear differential equations 100 times and would take at least several minutes of processing time on a Cray supercomputer. Keeping in mind that there are 10 million or more such cells interacting with each other in complex ways, it would take a minimum of 100 years of Cray time to simulate what takes place in your eye many times every second. The human is the only species known to shed tears when they are sad. The eye is infinitely more complex than any man-made camera. It can handle 1.5 million simultaneous messages, and gathers 80% of all the knowledge absorbed by the brain. The retina covers less than a square inch, and contains 137 million light-sensitive receptor cells, 130 million rods (allowing the eye to see in black and white), and 7 million cones (allowing the eye to see in full color). The rod can detect a single photon. For visible light the energy carried by a single photon would be around a tiny 4 x 10-19 Joules; this energy is just sufficient to excite a single molecule in a photoreceptor cell of an eye. In an average day, the eye moves about 100,000 times, using muscles that, milligram for milligram, are among the body’s strongest. The body would have to walk 50 miles to exercise the leg muscles an equal amount. The eye is self-cleaning. Lacrimal glands produce secretions (e.g., tears) to flush away dust and other foreign materials. Eyelids act as windshield washers. The blinking process (3-6 times a minute) keeps the sensitive cornea moist and clean. And, tears contain a potent microbe-killer (lysozyme) which guards the eyes against bacterial infection. During times of stress, one eye will “rest” while the other does 90% of the work; then the process is reversed, allowing both eyes equal amounts of rest. The brain receives millions of simultaneous reports from the eyes. When its designated wavelength of light is present, each rod or cone triggers an electrical response to the brain, which then absorbs a composite set of yes-or-no messages from all the rods and cones.
There are about....
Ten-trillion levels of intensity to human hearing (from threshold to pain, 0 to 130 decibels). This makes the sense of hearing the widest ranging of all senses. The ear is capable of detecting pressure variations of less than two-ten-thosanths-of-a-millionth of barometric pressure. This moves the ear drum about one-hundreth-millionth of an inch. This threshold of hearing corresponds to a vibration width of only one-hundreth of an hydrogen atom’s diameter. (Hydrogen is the smallest atom.)
There are about....
Ten-thousand different odors the average person is able to detect. Our noses are so sensitive we can detect the odors of certain substances even when they are diluted to 1 part in 30 billion and are so keen we can tell which direction a odor is coming from. Each person gives off a distinctive scent signature (like a fingerprint).
There are about....
Two and a half-billion beats from the heart once a person reaches seventy. The heart will pump forty-eight-million gallons of blood by then and could fill 2000 railroad tanker cars stretching over 20 miles. In one hour the heart works hard enough to raise a one ton weight one yard from the ground. The heart is so strong that it could shoot a stream of blood over 30 feet. There are over sixty-thousand miles of blood vessels in the average person. That's enough to go around the world two and a half times, if they were stretched out end to end! A blood cell will make one circuit, from the heart through the major organs and part of the blood system, and back, in an average of one minute. Over 2 million red blood cells are made every second, if all of a person’s red blood cells were laid out side by side it would stretch over 100 thousand miles. That’s over 4 times around the equator of the earth.
There are about....
One-hundred-thousand pounds of food and fourteen-thousand gallons of liquid consumed by the average person in their lifetime.
There are about....
Five-hundred different functions of the liver, some of which include: metabolizing food into nutrients; detoxifying poisons; purifying the blood; manufacturing blood clotting agents and blood proteins; manufacturing and storing hormones; and maintaining body fat levels such as cholesterol and triglycerides. The liver is so resilient it can grow back to normal size in three months, even if only twenty percent of the liver remains.
There are about.....
One-hundred trillion cells in the average person. Each cell has over a million unique structures and processes (a complexity comparable to a large city ). Each cell consists of "artificial languages and their decoding systems, memory banks for information storage and retrieval, elegant control systems regulating the automated assembly of parts and components, error fail-safe and proof-reading devices utilized for quality control, assembly processes involving the principle of prefabrication and modular construction and a capacity not equaled in any of our most advanced machines, for one of our most advanced machines would have to be capable of self-replicating its entire structure within a matter of a few hours. Every one of those trillions of cells (except for the brain cells) is regenerated and replaced on average of every seven years! Each cell has about ten-thousand times as many molecules as our Milky Way galaxy has stars. Skin is completely renewed every twenty-seven days and the skeleton is completely renewed every three months.
There are about....
Six feet of DNA packed in the nucleus of each cell, which is only 1.4-millionths of a meter wide. If you could stretch lengthwise all the DNA in just one human, you could go 125 billion miles (from the Sun to Pluto and back fifteen times)! If the string of DNA were about a yard thick, the machinery that copies the DNA would be about the size of a FedEx delivery truck. Unlike a truck, however, this machinery would travel along the "string" at 375 miles per hour, copying the DNA into another string. The data compression of the DNA is up to 12 codes thick.
There are about....
Three-billion letters of code on that six feet of DNA. The DNA contains the “complete parts list” of the trillions upon trillions of proteins that are in your body, plus, it contains the blueprint of how all these countless trillions of proteins go together, plus it contains the self-assembly instructions that somehow tells all these countless proteins how to put themselves together in the proper way. According to Bill Gates, the DNA code is written in some type of super-code that is far, far more advanced than any computer program ever written by man. If you were to write out that super-code, you could fill a three-thousand volume encyclopedia (a million letters per encyclopedia) ! If you were to read the code aloud, at a rate of three letters per second for twenty-four hours per day (about one-hundred-million letters a year), it would take you over thirty years to read it. The capacity of a DNA molecule to store information is so efficient that all the information needed to specify an organism as complex as man weighs less than a few thousand-millionths of a gram. The information needed to specify the design of all species of organisms that have ever existed (a number estimated to be one billion) could easily fit into a teaspoon with plenty of room left over for every book ever written on the face of earth. For comparison sake, if mere man were to write out the proper locations of all those proteins in just one human body, in the limited mathematical language he now uses, it would take a bundle of CD-ROM disks greater than the size of the moon, or a billion-trillion computer hard drives, and that’s just the proper locations for the protein molecules in one human body, that billion-trillion computer hard-drives would not contain a single word of instruction telling those protein molecules how to self assemble themselves.
There are about....
Twenty-five-million spools on which the six feet of DNA is wound so as to keep it from becoming tangled . At thousands of different sites the DNA is constantly being wound or unwound to reveal the proper code to the cell's transcription mechanisms. On top of this engineering nightmare, each time a new cell is required, a copy of the DNA must be made and then split apart from the old DNA!
There are about....
One-hundred-and-fifty-three-thousand different types or classes of proteins in the human body. An individual protein is so small that we would have to magnify it a million times to be able to see it with our eyes. Each protein is made of a complex sequence of the twenty different L-amino acids which are the basic building blocks of all life forms on earth. How complex? Let us consider insulin, one of the simplest proteins. It has fifty-one possible locations for an L-amino acid to occupy. If we theoretically try every possible combination of putting the twenty different L-amino acids in the fifty-one places possible, and we filled a basket (large) with just one electron from all the combinations, the basket would weigh one-hundred billion times the weight of the earth!!
More amazing yet....
The possibilities of making a specific one-hundred L-amino acid sequence into a desired protein by pure chance are even more astronomical, EVEN IF every atomic particle in the entire universe were dedicated to being L-amino acids. A universe full of L-amino acids trying totally new and unique combinations for groups of one-hundred, at the rate of a trillion times a second for thirty billion years, would have only a one in a trillion, trillion possibility of having made a specific one-hundred L-amino acid protein during that thirty billion years. In other words, only one trillion, trillionth of all the total combinations possible for a simple one-hundred L-amino acid protein would have been made during that thirty billion years!! The simplest life form on earth requires millions of proteins molecules which are divided into hundreds of different and distinctly shaped types. When considering the interwoven complexity required for these millions of precisely shaped protein molecules, it becomes apparent life originating by natural means is clearly impossible.
The previously stated odds are much worse than I've shown for the one-hundred L-amino acid protein. It is not enough for the L-amino acids to be in the same place at the same time. Many times, L-amino acids must be held and kept from folding on to each other while they are being assembled in to the correct sequence for the final protein. When they are finally correctly sequenced, the L-amino acids are released from their hold and guided by other proteins into folding into the final precisely correct 3 dimensional protein shape! It would take the most powerful super-computer in the world an entire year just to figure out how one "simple" one-hundred L-amino acid protein will look in its final 3-dimensional form once it has been released from its hold. Yet the protein accomplishes its final shape in a fraction of a second!
Biophysicist Hubert Yockey determined that natural selection would have to explore 1.40 x 10^70 different genetic codes to discover the optimal universal genetic code that is found in nature. The maximum amount of time available for it to originate is 6.3 x 10^15 seconds. Natural selection would have to evaluate roughly 10^55 codes per second to find the one that is optimal. Put simply, natural selection lacks the time necessary to find the optimal universal genetic code we find in nature. (Gitt, In The Beginning was Information; Rana, The Cells design page 177)
Your bone is stronger than granite. A block of bone half the size of a computer mouse can support 10 tons - 4 times the capacity of concrete.
more recent notes:
The average number of cells in the human body is between 75 and 100 trillion cells. 300 million cells in the human body die and are replaced (most of them) every minute. If all the DNA was removed from a single cell in a person's body and laid end to end, it would be six feet long. If the DNA was removed from all of the cells in a person's body and laid end to end, it would stretch from Earth to the sun and back 450 times, or about 135 billion kilometers. The human genome, according to Bill Gates the founder of Microsoft, far, far surpasses, in complexity, any computer program ever written by man. The data compression (multiple meanings) of some stretches of human DNA is estimated to be up to 12 codes thick! (Trifonov, 1989) No line of computer code ever written by man approaches that level of data compression (poly-functional complexity). There are about three-billion letters of code on the six feet of DNA curled up in each human cell. The amount of information in human DNA is roughly equivalent to 12 sets of The Encyclopaedia Britannica—an incredible 384 volumes worth of detailed information that would fill 48 feet of library shelves! If you were to read the code aloud, at a rate of three letters per second for twenty-four hours per day (about one-hundred-million letters a year), it would take you over thirty years to read it. The capacity of a DNA molecule to store information is so efficient all the information needed to specify an organism as complex as man weighs less than a few thousand-millionths of a gram. The information needed to specify the design of all species of organisms which have ever existed (a number estimated to be one billion) could easily fit into a teaspoon with plenty of room left over for every book ever written on the face of the earth. For comparison sake, if mere man were to try to 'quantum teleport' just one human body (change a physical human body into "pure information" and then 'teleport' it to another physical location) it would take at least 10^32 bits just to decode the teleportation event, or a cube of CD-ROM disks 1000 kilometers on 1 side, and would take over one hundred million centuries to transmit all that information for just one human body even with the best optical fibers conceivable!
A fun talk on teleportation - Professor Samuel Braunstein
On top of that the entire digital output of the entire world is only 10^21 bytes or 10^22 bits and Werner Gitt observes that the storage capacity of just “1 cubic cm of DNA is 10^21 bits. (DNA – deoxyribonucleaic acid.)”
Intelligent Design - The Anthropic Hypothesis
Coming soon to iTunes on October 23rd!
From Big Ideas Corporation, the creators of the hit iPhone puzzle game, Say What You See: Music Fest, comes the all new, Say What You See: The Collection. In The Collection, launching October 23, two new canvases, Scary Movies and Books 2 Film are brought to life!
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La Catarata es la opacidad de la lente natural que está en el interior del ojo llamado cristalino. El cristalino se encuentra detrás de la pupila y del iris, en condiciones normales es totalmente transparente y su función es ayudar a enfocar las imágenes en la retina, la cual las envía al cerebro en forma de señales nerviosas. Esta opacidad interfiere en el paso de la luz hacia la retina, produciendo un empañamiento o disminución gradual de la visión.
Existen numerosas modalidades quirúrgicas para la corrección de los defectos visuales o errores refractivos miopía, hipermetropía y astigmatismo. En conjunto, estas técnicas se conocen como cirugía refractiva y su objetivo es modificar la forma de la córnea para que los rayos de luz puedan enfocarse nítidamente en la retina. Esto logra que en la mayoría de los casos la necesidad de usar gafas o lentes de contacto se elimine o reduzca considerablemente y que el paciente pueda hacer una vida normal sin el uso permanente de lentes correctores.
La hipermetropía es un defecto de refracción que da lugar a una imagen borrosa principalmente de cerca. Los rayos de luz convergen detrás de la retina debido a que el ojo es más corto de lo habitual o la córnea demasiada plana. Al nacimiento la gran mayoría de los niños son hipermétropes, situación que se va reduciendo gradualmente con el paso de los años, aunque la mayoría de las personas permanecen ligeramente hipermétropes durante la edad adulta. Las personas hipermétropes suelen compensar su defecto forzando los músculos del globo ocular (Acomodación) para ver bien de cerca.
Si usted tiene miopía, los rayos luminosos de las imágenes distantes se enfocan delante de la retina, de modo que puede ver bien los objetos cercanos a sus ojos pero borroso cualquier cosa lejana. La miopía es uno de los problemas refractivos más comunes y resulta cuando la curvatura de la córnea es mayor o el globo del ojo es demasiado largo. La miopía se produce en todos los grados, de mínima a extrema. Mientras más miope sea, más borrosa será su visión a distancia y los objetos tendrán que estar más cerca para que usted los pueda ver claramente.