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Sapphire is the single crystal form of the compound aluminum oxide and it is the second hardest material in nature after diamond. Sapphire offers optical transparency, physical strength, resistance to impact, abrasion, and corrosion, high pressure and temperature durability, bio-compatibility and is able to be shaped into nearly any shape for a variety of applications. I’m Christina Collins with CRWE Newswire -Today’s company highlight is Rubicon Technology Incorporated trading with the symbol RBCN - Rubicon Technology is an advanced electronic materials provider that is engaged in developing, manufacturing and selling monocrystalline sapphire and other crystalline products for light-emitting diodes (LEDs), radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs), blue laser diodes, optoelectronics and other optical applications. The Company applies its proprietary crystal growth technology to produce very high-quality sapphire in a form that allows for volume production of various sizes and orientations of substrates and windows. Rubicon Technology recently reported that it is having another solid quarter and estimates that revenue in the second quarter 2011 should come in at the high end of the $40 million and $43 million range of its previously provided guidance. Pre-tax earnings are also expected to be at the high end of the company’s previous estimates. For more information about Rubicon Technology Incorporated, symbol RBCN, visit www.rubicon-es2****. I’m Christina Collins with CRWE Newswire
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The world's roundest object helps solve the longest running problem in measurement -- how to define the kilogram.
A kilogram isn't what it used to be. Literally. The original name for it was the 'grave', proposed in 1793 but it fell victim to the French Revolution like its creator, Lavoisier. So begins the tale of the most unusual SI unit. The kilogram is the only base unit with a prefix in its name, and the only one still defined by a physical artifact, the international prototype kilogram or IPK.
But the problem with this definition has long been apparent. The IPK doesn't seem to maintain its mass compared to 40 similar cylinders minted at the same time. The goal is therefore to eliminate the kilogram's dependence on a physical object. Two main approaches are being considered to achieve this end: the Avogadro Project and the Watt Balance.
The Avogadro project aims to redefine Avogadro's constant (currently defined by the kilogram -- the number of atoms in 12 g of carbon-12) and reverse the relationship so that the kilogram is precisely specified by Avogadro's constant. This method required creating the most perfect sphere on Earth. It is made out of a single crystal of silicon 28 atoms. By carefully measuring the diameter, the volume can be precisely specified. Since the atom spacing of silicon is well known, the number of atoms in a sphere can be accurately calculated. This allows for a very precise determination of Avogadro's constant.
Special thanks to Katie Green, Dr. David Farrant, the CSIRO, and the National Measurment Institute for their help. Thanks also to Nessy Hill for filming and reviewing earlier drafts of this video.
Music by Kevin McLeod (incompetech****) Decision, Danse Macabre, Scissors
The official video for the single, 'Crystal Clear', taken from our debut album, 'All Our Kings Are Dead'. The 'Crystal Clear' digital EP is out July 26th. 'All Our Kings Are Dead' is out July 12th. Preorders available now *******tinyurl****/YGpreorders
MR.FRequenCY(www.myspace****/freedomskey) and Etereys(www.myspace****/phoenixserpent) demonstrating the piezoelectric effect.
PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT [piezoelectric effect] , voltage produced between surfaces of a solid dielectric (nonconducting substance) when a mechanical stress is applied to it. A small current may be produced as well. The effect, discovered by Pierre Curie in 1883, is exhibited by certain crystals, e.g., quartz and Rochelle salt, and ceramic materials. When a voltage is applied across certain surfaces of a solid that exhibits the piezoelectric effect, the solid undergoes a mechanical distortion. Piezoelectric materials are used in transducers , e.g., phonograph cartridges, microphones, and strain gauges, which produce an electrical output from a mechanical input, and in earphones and ultrasonic radiators, which produce a mechanical output from an electrical input. Piezoelectric solids typically resonate within narrowly defined frequency ranges; when suitably mounted they can be used in electric circuits as components of highly selective filters or as frequency-control devices for very stable oscillators.
Quartz (which is a single-crystal form of SiO2) has been the material of choice for stable resonators since shortly after piezoelectric crystals were first used in oscillators - in 1918. Although many other materials have been explored, none has been found to be better than quartz. Quartz is the only material known that possesses the following combination of properties:
1) It is piezoelectric ("pressure electric"; piezein means "to press" in Greek).
2) Zero temperature coefficient resonators can be made when the plates are cut along the proper directions with respect to the crystallographic axes of quartz.
3) Of the zero temperature coefficient cuts, one, the SC-cut (see below), is "stress compensated."
4) It has low intrinsic losses (i.e., quartz resonators can have high Q's).
5) It is easy to process because it is hard but not brittle, and, under normal conditions, it has low solubility in everything except the fluoride etchants
6) It is abundant in nature.
7) It is easy to grow in large quantities, at low cost, and with relatively high purity and perfection.
Of the man-grown single crystals, quartz, at more than 2000 tons per year (in 1991), is second only to silicon in quantity grown.
The direct piezoelectric effect was discovered by the Curie brothers in 1880. They showed that when a weight was placed on a quartz crystal, charges appeared on the crystal surface; the magnitude of the charge was proportional to the weight. In 1881, the converse piezoelectric effect was illustrated; when a voltage was applied to the crystal, the crystal deformed due to the lattice strains caused by the effect. The strains reversed when the voltage was reversed.
Of the 32 crystal classes, 20 exhibit the piezoelectric effect (but only a few of these are useful). Piezoelectric crystals lack a center of symmetry. When a force deforms the lattice, the centers of gravity of the positive and negative charges in the crystal can be separated so as to produce surface charges. The piezoelectric effect can provide a coupling between an electrical circuit and the mechanical properties of a crystal. Under the proper conditions, a "good" piezoelectric resonator can stabilize the frequency of an oscillator circuit.
This is a 30 years old movie spot demonstrating multiple holographic picture storage (movie) in doped LiNb03 single crystal with an Argon Laser. The short movie was produced from a sequence of a Camel cigarette advertisement film only by expose the crystal on many different rotation positions with single pictures of the film. The exposure time was about 100 sec for each single picture, because of the low sensitivity of the optical writing process. However, because of the high refractive index of the crystal the storage capacity was about ~10^12 bit cm^-3. I have added some tune to this with my guitar.
Czochralski process is named in conjunction with a Polish scientist called Jan Czochralski, who invented the development in 1916. In the Czochralski process, a seed crystal is dipped into a crucible of molten silicon and withdrawn slowly, pulling a cylindrical single crystal as the silicon crystallizes on the seed. Czochralski process used to produce high volume of Silicon single crystals.