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25:03
When a human body detects a viral infection, it begins to respond accordingly. A process commonly known as RNA interference starts which degrade viral genetic material, thereby enabling cells to outlast the infection. Human body has several defense mechanisms against such infections. Skin is a primary physical barrier which discourages easy access to virus. Infected body cells make substances known as interferons that can make uninfected cells impervious to viral infection. When the virus enters a human body, it triggers body’s immune defense mechanism. This defense mechanism starts with white blood cells (WBC), like monocytes and lymphocytes, which comprehend to attack and destroy the virus or the infected cell. If the body manages to survive the infection, the white blood cells remember the invader virus and can react more quickly and smartly to a further infection caused by the same virus. This response mechanism is called immunity. Body’s immune system produces specific antibodies which are capable of binding to the viruses, thereby making them non-infectious. Apart from this, T-cells are sent to demolish the virus. Though most of the viral infections produce a protective response from body’s immune system, viruses like Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) specialize in damaging the immune system through different techniques.
7 Sep 2017
15
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21:48
Gallstones and cholecystitis are treatable conditions. Gallstones that do not cause symptoms don't need immediate treatment other than an alert for potential future gallbladder problems. However, gallstones that cause symptoms or infections of the gallbladder do need treatment. Treatment options include surgically removing the gallbladder, medications to break up gallstones, and antibiotics to treat infections. According to the University of California San Francisco (UCSF), gallbladder removal surgery is one of the most commonly performed surgeries. Laparoscopic gallbladder removal (keyhole surgery) is most common. In this procedure, a surgeon inserts a thin tube with a tiny video camera attached into a small incision in the abdomen. The camera transmits images from inside the body to a video monitor. While watching the enlarged images on the monitor, the surgeon carefully removes the gallbladder through one of the small incisions. Most gallbladder removals are performed this way. These surgeries are often outpatient procedures, meaning that the patient can often go home the same day. A much smaller number of gallbladder patients need open surgery. During open surgery, a surgeon removes the gallbladder through a 4-6-inch-long incision in the abdomen. These surgeries often happen when the gallbladder is too inflamed or infected to remove laparoscopically or if a problem occurs during a laparoscopic procedure. This is not an outpatient procedure and may require a hospital stay of up to 1 week afterward. If a person is too ill to tolerate surgery, the gallbladder can be drained with a tube inserted through the skin directly into the gallbladder.
7 Sep 2017
10
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15:44
Lung diseases due to gas or chemical exposure are conditions that can be acquired from indoor and outdoor air pollution and from ingesting tobacco smoke. Description The lungs are susceptible to many airborne poisons and irritants. Mucus present in the airways blocks foreign particles of a certain size, however it is unable to filter all airborne particulates. There are hundreds of substances that can pollute air and harm lungs. Harmful gases and chemicals are just one type of airborne pollutant that can adversely affect the lungs. They include: * Vehicle exhaust * Localized pollutants such as arsenic, asbestos, lead, and mercury * Outdoor pollutants caused by industry and intensified by weather conditions * Household heating, such as wood-burning stoves * Household chemical products * Tobacco smoke. Lungs respond to irritants in four ways, each of which can occur separately or, more often, trigger other responses. * Asthma occurs when irritation causes the smooth muscles surrounding the airways to constrict. * Increased mucus comes from irritated mucus glands lining the airway. Excess mucus clogs the airway and prevents air from circulating. * Constriction of the lungs results from scarring when the supporting tissues are damaged. * Cancer is caused by certain irritants, such as asbestos and tobacco smoke.
7 Sep 2017
8
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0:26
This driver has a great patience, waited for too long for the car in the front to move or give way, but when the front car denied doing both, he changed lane finally to take over the other car.
9 Sep 2017
353
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21:20
The human body is a vastly complex biochemical organism, finely tuned and adaptable. It contains many different regulatory systems to make sure that things work properly in response to external conditions. When it becomes too warm inside the body, the water cooling system is turned up, and more sweat is secreted by the skin. The sweat evaporates, cools the blood underneath the skin, which in turn cools the body core. The sensors in the brain detect that things are back within normal limits, and turn off the sweat glands. This type of regulation (known as homeostasis) occurs for all bodily processes, and usually without any awareness or thought on our part. When external circumstances (like extreme heat or cold) or internal conditions (disease or poisoning) cannot be adjusted by normal mechanisms, the signs of discomfort and disease appear. The types of physical effects seen or felt (signs and symptoms) depend on the type of stress to which the body has been exposed. Because there are so many complex interrelationships between the systems within the body, a single change in any one system may result in numerous effects in other systems. In addition, the types of response to disease are limited, thus signs and symptoms of disease are often quite similar for different diseases. For example, headache, fever, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea are very common non-specific symptoms of disease, produced by many, many conditions. Because of the generality of most physiological responses to disease, many other methods have been developed to help diagnose the actual causes of disease. These methods include physical, biochemical and immunological techniques upon which modern clinical medicine is based. A body's homeostasis can be upset by physical, chemical and/or biological agents which put stress on the body. The body's reaction to prolonged stress depends on the nature of the agent, the degree of stress, and the duration of stress. When the stress is too strong or too long, and
10 Sep 2017
8
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15:44
Radiation and DNA Radiation is simply a mechanism whereby energy passes through space. It takes the form of an electromagnetic wave, with the frequency of the electromagnetic wave determining its position in the electromagnetic spectrum. Low-frequency waves such as radio waves lie at one end of the spectrum and high-energy, high-frequency X-rays/Gamma rays at the other end. These high-frequency, high-energy waves are termed “ionizing” (as opposed to non-ionizing) radiation because they contain sufficient energy to displace an electron from its orbit around a nucleus. The most important consequence of this displaced electron on human tissue is the potential damage it can inflict on DNA, which may occur directly or indirectly. Direct damage occurs when the displaced electron hits and breaks a DNA strand. Indirect damage occurs when the electron reacts with a water molecule, creating a powerful hydroxyl radical which then damages the cell’s DNA. Damage to a cell’s DNA in either of these ways can have several consequences. A single-strand DNA break is usually repaired appropriately by the cell with no subsequent deleterious sequelae. However, a break affecting both strands of DNA allows the potential for abnormal reconnection of the strands, which likely accounts for all the adverse biological effects ionizing radiation has on humans. First, DNA may rejoin itself incorrectly, rendering the cell nonviable with cell death taking place. Second, it may rejoin as a symmetrical translocation with the potential expression of an oncogene during division (and development of subsequent malignancy) or with abnormal division in gonads, giving rise to potential hereditary disorders. Radiosensitivity is the probability of a cell, tissue, or organ suffering an effect per unit dose of radiation. Radiosensitivity is highest in cells which are highly mitotic or undifferentiated. For this reason the basal epidermis, bone marrow, thymus, gonads, and lens cells are highly radiosensitive.
10 Sep 2017
11
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0:59
The best eye drops for you may depend on what’s drying your eyes out. NAC Drops, can provide relief for short term dry eyes, when the cause is related to temporary circumstances such as computer eye strain, being outdoors in windy and sunny conditions, and tiredness.
11 Sep 2017
10
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25:03
How Pathogens Make Us Sick Infection with a pathogen does not necessarily lead to disease. Infection occurs when viruses, bacteria, or other microbes enter your body and begin to multiply. Disease occurs when the cells in your body are damaged as a result of infection and signs and symptoms of an illness appear. The incidence of disease among those infected varies greatly depending on the particular pathogen and individual susceptibility. Many of the symptoms that make a person suffer during an infection fever, malaise, headache, rash result from the activities of the immune system trying to eliminate the infection from the body. In response to infection, your immune system springs into action. White blood cells, antibodies, and other mechanisms go to work to rid your body of the foreign invader. Indeed, many of the symptoms that make a person suffer during an infection fever, malaise, headache, rash result from the activities of the immune system trying to eliminate the infection from the body. Pathogenic microbes challenge the immune system in many ways. Viruses make us sick by killing cells or disrupting cell function. Our bodies often respond with fever (heat inactivates many viruses), with the secretion of a chemical called interferon (which blocks viruses from reproducing), or by marshaling the immune system’s antibodies and other cells to target the invader. Many bacteria make us sick in the same way that viruses do, but they also have other strategies at their disposal. Sometimes bacteria multiply so rapidly they crowd out host tissues and disrupt normal function. Sometimes they kill cells and tissues outright. Sometimes they make toxins that can paralyze, destroy cells’ metabolic machinery, or precipitate a massive immune reaction that is itself toxic.
12 Sep 2017
14
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41:09
When the symptoms of an enlarged prostate gland are mild, with low scores on the BPH Impact Index (less than 8), it may be best to wait before starting any treatment what's known as "watchful waiting." With regular checkups once a year or more often, doctors can watch for early problems and signs that the condition is posing a health risk or a major inconvenience. That's where the BPH Index is especially helpful, Westney tells WebMD. "It lets us know how high the symptom score is … when to start treatment." The "driving force in treatment," she explains, is whether the symptoms are affecting your quality of life and whether a blockage is causing serious complications, such as inability to urinate, blood in the urine, bladder stones, kidney failure, or other bladder problems. A few questions to ask yourself: How severe are your symptoms? Do symptoms prevent you from doing things you enjoy? Do they seriously affect your quality of life? Are they getting worse? Are you ready to accept some small risks to get rid of your symptoms? Do you know the risks associated with each treatment? Is it time to do something?
12 Sep 2017
14
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0:39
Synopsis: The story of The Mountain between us focuses on two characters. On the one hand we have the reputed surgeon Ben Bass (Idris Elba, The Dark Tower) who has to travel to Baltimore to perform an emergency operation. On the other hand, we have Alex Martin (Kate Winslet, Steve Jobs) who is on his way to his wedding. As they are somewhat tight on time, and there are problems with their flights, Alex proposes to Ben rent a plane and arrive without problems to their destinations. His plans will be truncated when the pilot of the plane suffers a heart attack, and it crashes in the mountains. There, incommunicado and with Alex wounded in a leg, the two will face the biggest challenge of survival of their lives. While they overcome inclemencies, an unexpected chemistry is emerging between both ...
12 Sep 2017
23
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0:40
You need to make sure that you know that you should consider hiring a corporate lawyer when you are going to start a new business. This is just making things easier when you have legal assistance ready at hand, for when the business might need one. To hire legal assistance, you need to make sure that you know what to look for in hiring the best in the field.
13 Sep 2017
5
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0:29
That horrifying moment when the kite took the man 65ft in the air and then the cord snaps and causes him to fall straight to the water.
17 Sep 2017
231
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0:38
Synopsis: The story of The Mountain between us focuses on two characters. On the one hand we have the reputed surgeon Ben Bass (Idris Elba, The Dark Tower) who has to travel to Baltimore to perform an emergency operation. On the other hand, we have Alex Martin (Kate Winslet, Steve Jobs) who is on his way to his wedding. As they are somewhat tight on time, and there are problems with their flights, Alex proposes to Ben rent a plane and arrive without problems to their destinations. His plans will be truncated when the pilot of the plane suffers a heart attack, and it crashes in the mountains. There, incommunicado and with Alex wounded in a leg, the two will face the biggest challenge of survival of their lives. While they overcome inclemencies, an unexpected chemistry is emerging between both ...
18 Sep 2017
21
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0:53
Candelaria, the Canary Islands’ symbol of sincere religious devotion, has an interesting air about it. Home to the archipelago’s well-loved patron saint, pilgrims, and Catholic devotees should not miss this town when in Tenerife. Its claim to fame as one of island’s religious focal points has a long history dating back to 1392. It was when the Guanches found the figure of the Virgin of Candelaria by the ocean. At present, the figure who is fondly known as the ‘Black Madonna’ because of its color, is housed in its solemn basilica. This beautiful seaside church is one the most photographed on the island. It also serves as a meeting point for thousands of pilgrims every year during the patron’s day.
19 Sep 2017
6
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3:00
A mild discomfort while swallowing and a scratchy feeling in the throat are the first symptoms noticed when a cold sets in. The most natural compliant is that the glands are swollen and the throat is sore. Strep throat, a bacterial infection, can also be the cause of a sore throat. Sore throat, swollen glands, and fever are indications of a bout of flu or influenza that is about to strike the body, and one finds other symptoms such as a cough, ear ache, fatigue, fever, and headache accompanying it. One may also suffer from sore throat with swollen glands and no fever. Swollen glands refer to the term used in everyday language to denote a swelling of the pharynx and the lymph nodes in the neck. Before looking for swollen throat remedies, it should be understood that prolonged neglect of severely swollen glands could lead to serious illnesses. While looking for information on how to cure swollen glands, one might find it necessary to determine the possible reasons and the exact location of the swelling. Salivary glands under the jaw and in front of the ear may be swollen or it could be a problem with the thyroid gland at the base of the neck. Swelling in the lymph nodes usually occurs when the body gears up to tackle an infection and increases the number of white cells present in the lymph nodes. Swollen glands treatment usually starts at home with simple steps like gargling with warm salt water three or four times a day. Adding a drop of antiseptic liquid to the solution might help relieve the pain and swelling. For sore throats caused by cold, steam inhalation two or three times a day with a blanket or towel over the head can help clear the nose and ease the pain caused by the swelling of the glands. Adding a couple of drops of eucalyptus oil to the steaming water can help soothe the discomfort. Drinking herbal tea made with holy basil and sucking on herbal lozenges with ginger and mint extracts are common natural home remedies for a sore throat and swollen glands.
19 Sep 2017
2
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15:44
Radiation includes High-energy electromagnetic waves (x-rays, gamma rays) Particles (alpha particles, beta particles, neutrons) Alpha particles are energetic helium nuclei emitted by some radionuclides with high atomic numbers (eg, plutonium, radium, uranium); they cannot penetrate skin beyond a shallow depth (< 0.1 mm). Beta particles are high-energy electrons that are emitted from the nuclei of unstable atoms (eg, cesium-137, iodine-131). These particles can penetrate more deeply into skin (1 to 2 cm) and cause both epithelial and subepithelial damage. Neutrons are electrically neutral particles emitted by a few radionuclides (eg, californium-252) and produced in nuclear fission reactions (eg, in nuclear reactors); their depth of tissue penetration varies from a few millimeters to several tens of centimeters, depending on their energy. They collide with the nuclei of stable atoms, resulting in emission of energetic protons, alpha and beta particles, and gamma radiation. Gamma radiation and x-rays are electromagnetic radiation (ie, photons) of very short wavelength that can penetrate deeply into tissue (many centimeters). While some photons deposit all their energy in the body, other photons of the same energy may only deposit a fraction of their energy and others may pass completely through the body without interacting. Because of these characteristics, alpha and beta particles cause the most damage when the radioactive atoms that emit them are within the body (internal contamination) or, in the case of beta-emitters, directly on the body; only tissue in close proximity to the radionuclide is affected. Gamma rays and x-rays can cause damage distant from their source and are typically responsible for acute radiation syndromes (ARS—see Radiation Exposure and Contamination : Acute radiation syndromes (ARS)).
19 Sep 2017
4
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