An Extensive Tour Of Brooklyn New York City By Bicycle
a present day borough of the New York City, it dates back more than 350 years. The settlement began in the seventeenth century which was founded by the Dutch was named "Breuckelen" grew to be a sizable city in the nineteenth century. In 1898 It was consolidated with New York City (then Manhattan and part of The Bronx) and with the rural areas of Queens and Staten Island, to form the modern New York City.
The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle the area on the western edge of Long Island, which was then largely inhabited by the Lenape Indians, a Native American people who are often referred to in contemporary colonial documents by a variation of the place name "Canarsie." The "Breuckelen" settlement, named after Breukelen in the Netherlands, was part of New Netherland, and the Dutch West India Company lost little time in chartering the six original parishes (listed here first by their later, more common English names): * Gravesend: in 1645, settled under Dutch patent by English followers of the Anabaptist, Lady Deborah Moody * Brooklyn: as "Breuckelen" in 1646, after the town now spelled Breukelen, Netherlands * Flatlands: as "New Amersfoort" in 1647 * Flatbush: as "Midwout" in 1652 * New Utrecht: in 1657, after the city of Utrecht, Netherlands * Bushwick: as "Boswijck" in 1661
Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furman's early (1824) compilation
The capital of the colony, New Amsterdam across the river, obtained its charter later than Brooklyn did, in 1653.
What is today Brooklyn left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, in a prelude to the Second AngloDutch War. New Netherland was taken in a naval action, and the conquerors renamed their prize in honor of the overall English naval commander, James, Duke of York; Brooklyn became a part of the Province of New York.
The English organized the six old Dutch towns of southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1, 1683,one of twelve counties then established in New York. This tract of land was recognized as a political entity for the first time, and the municipal groundwork was laid for a later expansive idea of Brooklyn identity.
On August 27, 1776, the Battle of Long Island (also known as the Battle of Brooklyn) was the first major engagement fought in the American Revolutionary War after independence was declared, and the largest of the entire conflict. British troops forced Continental Army troops under George Washington off the heights near the modern sites of Green-Wood Cemetery, Prospect Park, and Grand Army Plaza. Washington, viewing particularly fierce fighting at the Gowanus Creek from his vantage point atop a hill near the west end of present-day Atlantic Avenue, was famously reported to have emotionally exclaimed: "What brave men I must this day lose!" The fortified American positions at Brooklyn Heights consequently became untenable and were evacuated a few days later, leaving the British in control of New York Harbor. While Washington's defeat on the battlefield cast early doubts on his ability as commander, the subsequent tactical withdrawal of all his troops and supplies across the East River in a single night is seen by historians as one of his most brilliant triumphs
The surrounding region was controlled by the British for the duration of the war, as New York City was soon occupied and became their military and political base of operations in North America for the remainder of the conflict. The British generally enjoyed a dominant Loyalist sentiment from the remaining residents in Kings County who did not evacuate, though the region was also the center of the fledgling — and largely successful — American intelligence network, headed by Washington himself. The British set up a system of notorious prison ships off the coast of Brooklyn in Wallabout Bay, where more American patriots died of intentional neglect than died in combat on all the battlefields of the American Revolutionary War, combined. The Treaty of Paris in 1783 resulted, in part, with the evacuation of the British from New York City, celebrated by residents into the 20th century.