Tubal ligation at Vibha - The Family hospital at Mumbai India.
A tubal ligation involves cutting the fallopian tubes, which carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus. In a normal pregnancy, the egg is fertilized by a man's sperm and then implants in the woman's uterus, where it develops into a baby. Tubal ligation prevents pregnancy in two ways: it prevents sperm from reaching an egg and it prevents eggs from reaching the uterus.
Tubal ligation is a surgical procedure. It is often done laparoscopically. The surgeon makes small incisions in the abdomen and inserts a tiny video camera with very small surgical tools. The doctor uses the camera to locate the fallopian tubes, then cuts the tubes and either seals them with clips or uses a technique called cauterization to close the ends by burning them.
Some women choose to have tubal ligation done just after giving birth. At that time, the uterus is still enlarged and the fallopian tubes are easy to reach through a small incision just under the navel. The procedure can be done in less than an hour with a local anesthetic and a sedative. If a woman has had a caesarian section, tubal ligation can often be done before the caesarian incision is closed.
There is a newer method of blocking off the fallopian tubes which does not require any incisions. The doctor inserts a tubelike instrument through the vagina and into the cervix. Then, he/she uses it to push small metallic coils through the uterus and up into the fallopian tubes. The coils stay in the fallopian tubes and cause scar tissue to form, which seals off the tubes.