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Jaipur, known as pink city is the first best planned city in India. Jaipur was founded in 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II. Initially his capital was Amber, which lies at a distance of 11 km from Jaipur. He felt the need of shifting his capital city with the increase in population and growing scarcity of water. The city was built following the principles of Shilpa Shastra, the science of Indian Architecture. The city was divided into nine blocks, of which two consist the state buildings and palaces, with the remaining seven allotted to the public. The city was planned according to Indian Vastu Shastra (Vedic Planning for the comfort and prosperity of the citizens). In 1853, when the Prince of Wales visited Jaipur, the whole city was painted pink to welcome him during the regime of Sawai Ram Singh. Today, avenues remain painted in pink which provided a distinctive appearance to the city.
Jaipur has a number of forts and monuments like Hawa Mahal, Amber Fort, Jaigarh Fort, Nahargarh Fort, City Palace, Jantar Mantar, Jal Mahal, Rambagh Palace, Central Museum, (Albert Hall Museum). There are also many famous temples in Jaipur include Govind Dev Ji Temple, Galtaji, Birla Temple (also known as Lakshmi Narayan Mandir), Garh Ganesh Temple, Shila Devi Temple in Amber, Chamtkareshwer Mahadev, Panchayati Hall,Radha Govind Ji Temple. There are beautiful gardens and parks. Prominent among them are Ram Niwas Garden, Sisodia Rani Garden and Palace, Vidyadhar Garden, Kanak Vrindavan, Central Park, Jawahar Circle Garden, Technology Park in Mansarover, Vidyadhar ka Bagh in Goner. Other places of interest include Chand Baori (stepwell), Chokhi Dhani (a village resort) and Kathputhli slum a Jaipur slum The City Palace is a historic landmark. The carved arches are supported by grey-white marble columns studded with floral motifs in gold and coloured stones
Jantar mantar is one of Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh's five remarkable observatories constructed with stone and marble. Its complex instruments whose settings and shapes are precisely and scientifically designed represent the high points of Medieval Indian astronomy. The Ram Yantras used for gauging altitudes are unique in their isolation. This is the largest of the five observatories founded by Sawai Jai Singh-II in various parts of the country. Major Yantras or instruments that you can watch moving clockwise are: Small 'Samrat', 'Dhruva', 'Narivalya', The Observer's Seat, Small 'Kranti Raj' 'Unnathamsa', 'Disha', 'Dakshina', Large 'Samrat', 'Rashivalayas', 'Jai Prakash', Small 'Ram', Large 'Ram Yantra', 'Diganta', Large 'Kranti'. Jantar Mantar has been listed in UNESCO world heritage sites.