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Among the other problems with the origin of even a single functional protein, Dr. Thaxton discusses the problem that specific sequences of Amino Acids (i.e. correct information) presents for 'natural' protein formation. Entire video may be viewed here: On The Origin Of Life - Thaxton ***********/watch?v=6Ye3oDDAxeE Further resources: On The Origin Of Life And God - Henry F. Schaefer, III PhD. - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4018204 Origin Of Life? - Probability Of Protein And The Information Of DNA - Dean Kenyon - video ***********/watch?v=9VhR2BHhxeo In fact Dean Kenyon, who was a leading Origin Of Life researcher as well as a college textbook author on the subject, admitted after years of extensive research: "We have not the slightest chance for the chemical evolutionary origin of even the simplest of cells". Stephen C. Meyer - The Scientific Basis For the Intelligent Design Inference - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4104651 Stephen Meyer - Functional Proteins And Information For Body Plans - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4050681 Evolution vs. Functional Proteins - Doug Axe - Video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4018222 Estimating the prevalence of protein sequences adopting functional enzyme folds: Doug Axe: Excerpt: Starting with a weakly functional sequence carrying this signature, clusters of ten side-chains within the fold are replaced randomly, within the boundaries of the signature, and tested for function. The prevalence of low-level function in four such experiments indicates that roughly one in 10^64 signature-consistent sequences forms a working domain. Combined with the estimated prevalence of plausible hydropathic patterns (for any fold) and of relevant folds for particular functions, this implies the overall prevalence of sequences performing a specific function by any domain-sized fold may be as low as 1 in 10^77, adding to the body of evidence that functional folds require highly extraordinary sequences. ******* Evolution's Fatal Flaw - The Origin Of Life - Chris Ashcraft PhD - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4347153 The problem of 'left handed' homochirality found in the Miller-Urey experiment is of no small concern to any Origin Of Life scenario put forth by evolutionists: Dr. Charles Garner on the problem of Chirality in nature and Origin of Life Research - audio *******intelligentdesign.podomatic****/player/web/2010-04-12T17_21_16-07_00 Homochirality and Darwin - Robert Sheldon - April 2010 Excerpt: there is no abiotic path from a racemic solution to a stereo-active solution of amino acid(s) that doesn't involve a biotic chiral agent, be it chiral beads or Louis Pasteur himself. Like many critiques of ID, the problem with these "Darwinist" solutions is that they always smuggle in some information, in this case, chiral agents. *******procrustes.blogtownhall****/2010/04/27/homochirality_and_darwin.thtml Homochirality and Darwin: part 2 - Robert Sheldon - May 2010 Excerpt: With regard to the deniers who think homochirality is not much of a problem, I only ask whether a solution requiring multiple massive magnetized black-hole supernovae doesn't imply there is at least a small difficulty to overcome? A difficulty, perhaps, that points to the non-random nature of life in the cosmos? *******procrustes.blogtownhall****/2010/05/21/homochirality_and_darwin_part_2.thtml The severity of the homochirality problem begins to highlight the number one question facing any Origin Of Life research. Namely, "Where is the specified complexity (information) coming from?" Even this recent 'evolution friendly' article readily admitted the staggering level of 'specified complexity' (information) being dealt with in the first cell: Was our oldest ancestor a proton-powered rock? - Oct. 2009 Excerpt: “There is no doubt that the progenitor of all life on Earth, the common ancestor, possessed DNA, RNA and proteins, a universal genetic code, ribosomes (the protein-building factories), ATP and a proton-powered enzyme for making ATP. The detailed mechanisms for reading off DNA and converting genes into proteins were also in place. In short, then, the last common ancestor of all life looks pretty much like a modern cell.” *******www.newscientist****/article/mg20427306.200-was-our-oldest-ancestor-a-protonpowered-rock.html I think David Abel, the director of the Gene Emergence Project, does a very good job of highlighting just how crucial accounting for specified 'logical' information is to Origin of Life research: Chance and necessity do not explain the origin of life: Trevors JT, Abel DL. Excerpt: Minimal metabolism would be needed for cells to be capable of growth and division. All known metabolism is cybernetic--that is, it is programmatically and algorithmically organized and controlled. ******* Intelligent Design - The Anthropic Hypothesis *******lettherebelight-77.blogspot****/2009/10/intelligent-design-anthropic-hypothesis_19.html
20 Sep 2010
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Dean Kenyon, who was a leading Origin Of Life researcher and the primary college textbook author on the subject, admitted after years of extensive research: "We have not the slightest chance for the chemical evolutionary origin of even the simplest self-replicating molecule". THE FOSSILS IN THE CREATION MUSEUM - 1000's of pictures of ancient "living" fossils that have not changed for millions of years: *******www.fossil-museum****/fossils/?page=0&limit=30 Ancient Fossils That Evolutionists Don't Want You To See - video ***********/watch?v=eLzqDLZoufQ Fossil Record - No Transitional Fossils - video ***********/watch?v=i0ZlcrumE2s "The point emerges that if we examine the fossil record in detail, whether at the level of orders or of species, we find' over and over again' not gradual evolution, but the sudden explosion of one group at the expense of another." Paleontologist, Derek V. Ager "A major problem in proving the theory has been the fossil record; the imprints of vanished species preserved in the Earth's geological formations. This record has never revealed traces of Darwin's hypothetical intermediate variants - instead species appear and disappear abruptly, and this anomaly has fueled the creationist argument that each species was created by God." Paleontologist, Mark Czarnecki "There is no need to apologize any longer for the poverty of the fossil record. In some ways, it has become almost unmanageably rich and discovery is outpacing integration. The fossil record nevertheless continues to be composed mainly of gaps." Professor of paleontology - Glasgow University, T. Neville George Intelligent Design - The Anthropic Hypothesis *******lettherebelight-77.blogspot****/
18 Jan 2010
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Three subsets of sequence complexity and their relevance to biopolymeric information - David L Abel and Jack T Trevors: Excerpt: Genetic algorithms instruct sophisticated biological organization. Three qualitative kinds of sequence complexity exist: random (RSC), ordered (OSC), and functional (FSC). FSC alone provides algorithmic instruction...No empirical evidence exists of either RSC of OSC ever having produced a single instance of sophisticated biological organization...It is only in researching the pre-RNA world that the problem of single-stranded metabolically functional sequencing of ribonucleotides (or their analogs) becomes acute. *******www.biomedcentral****/content/pdf/1742-4682-2-29.pdf Doug Axe humorously dismantled one of the latest ploys by materialists to oversell their meager evidence for a "self-replicating RNA molecule" in this following article: Biologic Institute Announces First Self-Replicating Motor Vehicle - Doug Axe - Excerpt: "So, advertising this as “self-replication” is a bit like advertising something as “free” when the actual deal is 1 free for every 1,600 purchased. It’s even worse, though, because you need lots of the pre-made precursors in cozy proximity to a finished RNA in order to kick the process off. That makes the real deal more like n free for every 1,600 n purchased, with the caveats that n must be a very large number and that full payment must be made in advance." *******biologicinstitute****/2009/04/01/biologic-institute-announces-first-self-replicating-motor-vehicle/ Stephen Meyer points out that intelligence design was clearly required for even this meager result: Biological Information: The Puzzle of Life that Darwinism Hasn’t Solved - Stephen C. Meyer Thus, as my book Signature in the Cell shows, Joyce’s experiments not only demonstrate that self-replication itself depends upon information-rich molecules, but they also confirm that intelligent design is the only known means by which information arises. *******www.evolutionnews****//2009/06/biological_information_the_puz.html Stephen Meyer Responds to Fletcher in Times Literary Supplement - Jan. 2010 Excerpt: everything we know about RNA catalysts, including those with partial self-copying capacity, shows that the function of these molecules depends upon the precise arrangement of their information-carrying constituents (i.e., their nucleotide bases). Functional RNA catalysts arise only once RNA bases are specifically-arranged into information-rich sequences—that is, function arises after, not before, the information problem has been solved. *******www.evolutionnews****/2010/01/stephen_meyer_responds_to_flet.html Materialists have not even created all 4 "letters" of RNA by natural means: Response to Darrel Falk’s Review of Signature in the Cell - Stephen Meyer - Jan. 2010 Excerpt: Sutherland’s work only partially addresses the first and least severe of these difficulties: the problem of generating the constituent building blocks or monomers in plausible pre-biotic conditions. It does not address the more severe problem of explaining how the bases in nucleic acids (either DNA or RNA) acquired their specific information-rich arrangements. *******www.signatureinthecell****/responses/response-to-darrel-falk.php Stirring the Soup - May 2009 "essentially, the scientists have succeeded in creating a couple of letters of the biological alphabet (in a "thermodynamically uphill" environment). What they need to do now is create the remaining letters, and then show how these letters were able to attach themselves together to form long chains of RNA, and arrange themselves in a specific order to encode information for creating specific proteins, and instructions to assemble the proteins into cells, tissues, organs, systems, and finally, complete phenotypes." Uncommon Descent - C Bass: *******www.uncommondescent****/intelligent-design/stirring-the-soup/#comments Scientists Say Intelligent Designer Needed for Origin of Life Chemistry Excerpt: Organic chemist Dr. Charles Garner recently noted in private correspondence that "while this work helps one imagine how RNA might form, it does nothing to address the information content of RNA. So, yes, there was a lot of guidance by an intelligent chemist." Sutherland's research produced only 2 of the 4 RNA nucleobases, and Dr. Garner also explained why, as is often the case, "the basic chemistry itself also required the hand of an intelligent chemist." *******www.evolutionnews****/2009/07/scientists_say_intelligent_des.html#more Meyer Responds to Stephen Fletcher - Stephen Meyer - March 2010 Excerpt: Nevertheless, this work does nothing to address the much more acute problem of explaining how the nucleotide bases in DNA or RNA acquired their specific information-rich arrangements, which is the central topic of my book (Signature In The Cell). In effect, the Powner (Sutherland) study helps explain the origin of the “letters” in the genetic text, but not their specific arrangement into functional “words” or “sentences.” *******www.evolutionnews****/2010/03/meyer_responds_to_stephen_flet.html Origin of Life: Claiming Something for Almost Nothing Excerpt: Yarus admitted, “the tiny replicator has not been found, and that its existence will be decided by experiments not yet done, perhaps not yet imagined.” But does this (laboratory) work support a naturalistic origin of life? A key question is whether a (self-replicating) molecule could form under plausible prebiotic conditions. Here’s how the paper described their work in the lab to get this (precursor) molecule: RNA was synthesized by Dharmacon. GUGGC = 5’-GUGGC-30 ; GCCU – 5’P-GCCU-3’ ; 5’OH-GCCU = 5’-GCCU-3’ ; GCCU20dU = 5’-GCC-2’-dU; GCC = 5’-GCC-3’ ; dGdCdCrU = 5’-dGdCdCU-3’ . RNA GCC3’dU was prepared by first synthesizing 5’-O-(4,4’- Dimethoxytrityl)3’-deoxyuridine as follows: 3’-deoxyuridine (MP Biomedicals; 991 mg, 0.434 mmol) was dissolved in 5 mL anhydrous pyridine and pyridine was then removed under vacuum while stirring. Solid was then redissolved in 2 mL pyridine. Dimethoxytrityl chloride (170 mg, 0.499 mmol) was dissolved in 12 mL pyridine and slowly added to 3’-deoxyuridine solution. Solution was stirred at room temperature for 4 h. All solutions were sequestered from exposure to air throughout. Reaction was then quenched by addition of 5 mL methanol, and solvent was removed by rotary evaporation. Remaining solvent evaporated overnight in a vacuum chamber. Product was then dissolved in 1 mL acetonitrile and purified through a silica column (acetonitrile elution). Final product fractions (confirmed through TLC, 1.1 hexane:acetonitrile) were pooled and rotary evaporated. Yield was 71%. Dimethoxytrityl-protected 30dU was then sent to Dharmacon for immobilization of 30-dU on glass and synthesis of 5’-GCC-3’-dU. PheAMP, PheUMP, and MetAMP were synthesized by the method of Berg (25) with modifications and purification as described in ref. 6. Yield was as follows: PheAMP 85%, PheUMP 67%, and MetAMP 36%. Even more purification and isolation steps under controlled conditions, using multiple solvents at various temperatures, were needed to prevent cross-reactions. (then this understatement follows) It is doubtful such complex lab procedures have analogues in nature. *******www.creationsafaris****/crev201003.htm#20100302a Here are some more critiques of the "RNA World" scenario: Did Life Begin in an RNA World? *******www.creationsafaris****/crev0702.htm#abiogenesis62 Self Replication and Perpetual Motion - The Second Law's Take On The RNA World *******theory-of-evolution****/chap10/self-replicating-RNA-perpetual-motion-4.php The RNA World: A Critique - Gordon Mills and Dean Kenyon: *******www.arn****/docs/odesign/od171/ribo171.htm Intelligent Design - The Anthropic Hypothesis *******lettherebelight-77.blogspot****/
2 May 2010
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Entire video: Refuting Darwinian Evolution - Jon Rittenhouse - video ***********/watch?v=sLPk4IJw_E8 What evidence is found for the first life on earth? - article *******lettherebelight-77.blogspot****/2012/02/what-evidence-is-found-for-first-life.html Dean Kenyon, who was a leading Origin Of Life researcher as well as a college textbook author on the subject in the 1970s, admitted after years of extensive research: "We have not the slightest chance for the chemical evolutionary origin of even the simplest of cells". Origin Of Life? - Probability Of Protein And The Information Of DNA - Dean Kenyon - video ***********/watch?v=9VhR2BHhxeo Programming of Life - Probability of a Cell Evolving - video ***********/user/Programmingoflife#p/c/AFDF33F11E2FB840/9/nyTUSe99z6o Probability Of A Protein and First Living Cell - Chris Ashcraft - video (notes in description) *******vimeo****/31536455 The Origin of Life - Lecture On Probability - John Walton - Professor Of Chemistry - short video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4012749 Protein Molecules and "Simple" Cells - video ***********/watch?v=uFNwStNhHIc Evolution: Possible or Impossible? - free e-book (with plenty of examples from math) - by Dr. James F. Coppedge *******creationsafaris****/epoi_toc.htm Stephen Meyer - Proteins by Design - Doing The Math - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/6332250/ Centre for Intelligent Design Lecture 2011 by Stephen Meyer on 'Signature in the Cell' - video ***********/watch?v=NbluTDb1Nfs Signature in the Cell - Book Review - Ken Peterson Excerpt: If we assume some minimally complex cell requires 250 different proteins then the probability of this arrangement happening purely by chance is one in 10 to the 164th multiplied by itself 250 times or one in 10 to the 41,000th power. *******www.spectrummagazine****/reviews/book_reviews/2009/10/06/signature_cell In fact years ago Fred Hoyle arrived at approximately the same number, one chance in 10^40,000, for life spontaneously arising. From this number, Fred Hoyle compared the random emergence of the simplest bacterium on earth to the likelihood “a tornado sweeping through a junkyard might assemble a Boeing 747 therein”. Fred Hoyle also compared the chance of obtaining just one single functioning protein molecule, by chance combination of amino acids, to a solar system packed full of blind men solving Rubik’s Cube simultaneously. Professor Harold Morowitz shows the Origin of Life 'problem' escalates dramatically over the 1 in 10^40,000 figure when working from a thermodynamic perspective,: "The probability for the chance of formation of the smallest, simplest form of living organism known is 1 in 10^340,000,000. This number is 10 to the 340 millionth power! The size of this figure is truly staggering since there is only supposed to be approximately 10^80 (10 to the 80th power) electrons in the whole universe!" (Professor Harold Morowitz, Energy Flow In Biology pg. 99, Biophysicist of George Mason University) Dr. Don Johnson lays out some of the probabilities for life in this following video: Probabilities Of Life - Don Johnson PhD. - 38 minute mark of video a typical functional protein - 1 part in 10^175 the required enzymes for life - 1 part in 10^40,000 a living self replicating cell - 1 part in 10^340,000,000 *******www.vimeo****/11706014 Increasing Genomic Information - Don Johnson - video Excerpt: Forming the simplest life is 10^300,000,000 more likely that forming a human life ***********/watch?v=VYFq9mpCT6c Dr. Morowitz did another probability calculation working from the thermodynamic perspective with a already existing cell and came up with this number: DID LIFE START BY CHANCE? Excerpt: Molecular biophysicist, Horold Morowitz (Yale University), calculated the odds of life beginning under natural conditions (spontaneous generation). He calculated, if one were to take the simplest living cell and break every chemical bond within it, the odds that the cell would reassemble under ideal natural conditions (the best possible chemical environment) would be one chance in 10^100,000,000,000. You will have probably have trouble imagining a number so large, so Hugh Ross provides us with the following example. If all the matter in the Universe was converted into building blocks of life, and if assembly of these building blocks were attempted once a microsecond for the entire age of the universe. Then instead of the odds being 1 in 10^100,000,000,000, they would be 1 in 10^99,999,999,916 (also of note: 1 with 100 billion zeros following would fill approx. 20,000 encyclopedias) *******members.tripod****/~Black_J/chance.html Punctured cell will never reassemble - Jonathan Wells - 2:40 mark of video ***********/watch?v=WKoiivfe_mo The Humpty-Dumpty Effect: A Revolutionary Paper with Far-Reaching Implications - Paul Nelson - October 23, 2012 Excerpt: Tompa and Rose calculate the "total number of possible distinct patterns of interactions," using yeast, a unicellular eukaryote, as their model system; this "total number" is the size of the space that must be searched. With approximately 4,500 proteins in yeast, the interactome search space "is on the order of 10^7200, an unimaginably large number," they write -- but "more realistic" estimates, they continue, are "yet more complicated." Proteins present many possible surfaces for chemical interaction. "In all," argue Tompa and Rose, "an average protein would have approximately 3540 distinguishable interfaces," and if one uses this number for the interactome space calculation, the result is 10 followed by the exponent 7.9 x 10^10.,,, the numbers preclude formation of a functional interactome (of 'simple' life) by trial and error,, within any meaningful span of time. This numerical tantamount to a proof that the cell does not organize by random collisions of its interacting constituents. (i.e. that life did not arise, nor operate, by chance!) *******www.evolutionnews****/2012/10/a_revolutionary065521.html Also of interest is the information content that is derived in a cell when working from a thermodynamic perspective: “a one-celled bacterium, e. coli, is estimated to contain the equivalent of 100 million pages of Encyclopedia Britannica. Expressed in information in science jargon, this would be the same as 10^12 bits of information. In comparison, the total writings from classical Greek Civilization is only 10^9 bits, and the largest libraries in the world – The British Museum, Oxford Bodleian Library, New York Public Library, Harvard Widenier Library, and the Moscow Lenin Library – have about 10 million volumes or 10^12 bits.” – R. C. Wysong 'The information content of a simple cell has been estimated as around 10^12 bits, comparable to about a hundred million pages of the Encyclopedia Britannica." Carl Sagan, "Life" in Encyclopedia Britannica: Macropaedia (1974 ed.), pp. 893-894 of note: The 10^12 bits of information number for a bacterium is derived from entropic considerations, which is, due to the tightly integrated relationship between information and entropy, considered the most accurate measure of the transcendent quantum information/entanglement constraining a 'simple' life form to be so far out of thermodynamic equilibrium. "Is there a real connection between entropy in physics and the entropy of information? ....The equations of information theory and the second law are the same, suggesting that the idea of entropy is something fundamental..." Siegfried, Dallas Morning News, 5/14/90, [Quotes Robert W. Lucky, Ex. Director of Research, AT&T, Bell Laboratories & John A. Wheeler, of Princeton & Univ. of TX, Austin] For calculations, from the thermodynamic perspective, please see the following site: Moleular Biophysics – Information theory. Relation between information and entropy: - Setlow-Pollard, Ed. Addison Wesley Excerpt: Linschitz gave the figure 9.3 x 10^12 cal/deg or 9.3 x 10^12 x 4.2 joules/deg for the entropy of a bacterial cell. Using the relation H = S/(k In 2), we find that the information content is 4 x 10^12 bits. Morowitz' deduction from the work of Bayne-Jones and Rhees gives the lower value of 5.6 x 10^11 bits, which is still in the neighborhood of 10^12 bits. Thus two quite different approaches give rather concordant figures. ******* Ilya Prigogine was an eminent chemist and physicist who received two Nobel Prizes in chemistry. Regarding the probability of life originating by accident, he said: “The statistical probability that organic structures and the most precisely harmonized reactions that typify living organisms would be generated by accident, is zero.” Ilya Prigogine, Gregoire Nicolis, and Agnes Babloyantz, Physics Today 25, pp. 23-28. *******en.wikiquote****/wiki/Western_Thought_on_Creation Quotes of Note: The Theist holds the Intellectual High-Ground - March 2011 Excerpt: To get a range on the enormous challenges involved in bridging the gaping chasm between non-life and life, consider the following: “The difference between a mixture of simple chemicals and a bacterium, is much more profound than the gulf between a bacterium and an elephant.” (Dr. Robert Shapiro, Professor Emeritus of Chemistry, NYU) *******www.faithfulnews****/contents/view_content2/49631/rabbi-moshe-averick-the-theist-holds-the-intellectual-high-ground-apologetics-christian-apologetics-defending-gospel Scientists Prove Again that Life is the Result of Intelligent Design - Rabbi Moshe Averick - August 2011 Excerpt: “To go from bacterium to people is less of a step than to go from a mixture of amino acids to a bacterium.” - Dr. Lynn Margulis *******www.algemeiner****/2011/08/17/scientists-prove-again-that-life-is-the-result-of-intelligent-design/ Stephen Meyer - The Scientific Basis for the Intelligent Design Inference - video *******vimeo****/32148403
20 Jan 2013
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