Though Lenski claims the new citrate ability of E-Coli is proof of evolution, it is actually proof of Genetic Entropy. These following articles refute Lenski's supposed "evolution" of the citrate ability for the E-Coli bacteria after 20,000 generations of the E-Coli:
Multiple Mutations Needed for E. Coli - Michael Behe
Excerpt: As Lenski put it, “The only known barrier to aerobic growth on citrate is its inability to transport citrate under oxic conditions.” (1) Other workers (cited by Lenski) in the past several decades have also identified mutant E. coli that could use citrate as a food source. In one instance the mutation wasn’t tracked down. (2) In another instance a protein coded by a gene called citT, which normally transports citrate in the absence of oxygen, was overexpressed. (3) The overexpressed protein allowed E. coli to grow on citrate in the presence of oxygen. It seems likely that Lenski’s mutant will turn out to be either this gene or another of the bacterium’s citrate-using genes, tweaked a bit to allow it to transport citrate in the presence of oxygen. (He hasn’t yet tracked down the mutation.),,, If Lenski’s results are about the best we've seen evolution do, then there's no reason to believe evolution could produce many of the complex biological features we see in the cell.
Lenski's e-coli - Analysis of Genetic Entropy
Excerpt: Mutants of E. coli obtained after 20,000 generations at 37°C were less “fit” than the wild-type strain when cultivated at either 20°C or 42°C. Other E. coli mutants obtained after 20,000 generations in medium where glucose was their sole catabolite tended to lose the ability to catabolize other carbohydrates. Such a reduction can be beneficially selected only as long as the organism remains in that constant environment. Ultimately, the genetic effect of these mutations is a loss of a function useful for one type of environment as a trade-off for adaptation to a different environment.
Upon closer inspection, it seems Lenski's "cuddled" E. coli are actually headed for "genetic meltdown", which is an effect predicted by the principle of genetic entropy, instead of evolving into something better.
New Work by Richard Lenski:
Excerpt: Interestingly, in this paper they report that the E. coli strain became a “mutator.” That means it lost at least some of its ability to repair its DNA, so mutations are accumulating now at a rate about seventy times faster than normal.
Evolution vs. Genetic Entropy - video
Intelligent Design - The Anthropic Hypothesis
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More reasons why evolution is stupid
Similar DNA codes prove the same design engineer wrote the codes, not evolution!
Dr. Barney Maddox, the leading genetic genome researcher, said, concerning these genetic differences, 'Now the genetic difference between human and his nearest relative, the chimpanzee, is at least 1.6%. That doesn't sound like much, but calculated out, that is a gap of at least 48,000,000 nucleotides, and a change of only 3 nucleotides is fatal to an animal: there is no possibility of change."
(Human Genome Project, Quantitive A Disproof of Evolution, CEM Facts sheet, Cited in Doubts about Evoluton?)
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More reasons why evolution is stupid!
Similar DNA codes prove the same design engineer wrote the codes, not evolution!
Dr. Barney Maddox, the leading genetic genome researcher, said, concerning these genetic differences, "Now the genetic difference between human and his nearest relative, the chimpanzee, is at least 1.6%. That doesn't sound like much, but calculated out, that is a gap of at least 48,000,000 nucleotides, and a change of only 3 nucleotides is fatal to an animal; there is no possibility of change."
Human Genome Project, Quantitative A Disproof of Evolution, CEM facts sheet, Cited in Doubts about Evolution?
The ability to produce and perceive sound is important for whales – to navigate, find food, and communicate. Toothed whales can use echolocation to hunt their prey. They send out high frequency clicks then listen for their echo as they bounce back from objects – like the next meal! Baleen whales use low frequency sound to communicate, sometimes over considerable distances. Recent research suggests that they do this with their larynx – the ‘voice box’ in land mammals. Some baleen whales, such as male humpbacks, produce extremely complex ‘songs’.
Whale Evolution Vs. Population Genetics - Richard Sternberg PhD. in Evolutionary Biology - video
Convergence Drives Evolution Batty - Fazale Rana - September 2010
Excerpt: The multiple, independent origin of echolocation in these animals (twice in bats and once in toothed whales) exemplifies convergence,,, When examined from an evolutionary perspective, convergence doesn’t make much sense.,,, the latest research demonstrates that—again, from an evolutionary perspective—the genetic and biochemical changes that account for the emergence of echolocation in bats and dolphins is identical. Given the random nature of the evolutionary process, this recent discovery doesn’t match what evolutionary biologists would expect to find. But both the discovery and convergence make sense if life stems from the work of a Creator.
Lenski's Citrate E-Coli - Disproof of Convergent Evolution - Fazale Rana - video (the disproof of convergence starts at the 2:45 minute mark of the video)
The Long Term Evolution Experiment - Analysis
Excerpt: The experiment just goes to show that even with historical contingency and extreme selection pressure, the probability of random mutations causing even a tiny evolutionary improvement in digestion is, in the words of the researchers who did the experiment, “extremely low.” Therefore, it can’t be the explanation for the origin and varieity of all the forms of life on Earth.
Stephen Meyer - Functional Proteins And Information For Body Plans - video
Getting Over the Code Delusion (Epigenetics) - Talbot - November 2010 - Excellent Article for explaining exactly why epigentics falsifies the neo-Darwinian paradigm of genetic reductionism:
Hopeful monsters,' transposons, and the Metazoan radiation:
Excerpt: Viable mutations with major morphological or physiological effects are exceedingly rare and usually infertile; the chance of two identical rare mutant individuals arising in sufficient propinquity to produce offspring seems too small to consider as a significant evolutionary event. These problems of viable "hopeful monsters" render these explanations untenable.
Paleobiologists Douglas Erwin and James Valentine
Widespread ORFan Genes Challenge Common Descent – Paul Nelson – video with references
How Whales Have (NOT) Changed Over 35 Million Years – May 2010
Excerpt: We could have found that the main whale lineages over time each experimented with being large, small and medium-sized and that all the dietary forms appeared throughout their evolution, or that whales started out medium-sized and the largest and smallest ones appeared more recently—but the data show none of that. Instead, we find that the differences today were apparent very early on.
Whale Evolution? - Exposing The Deception - Dr. Terry Mortenson - video
Of Whale and Feather Evolution: Nature's Two Macroevolutionary Lumps of Coal (Dismantling Nature's evolutionary evangelism packet) - Casey Luskin _ November 2010
This article shows how misleading Darwinists can be with the 'whale' evidence:
Meet Pakicetus, the Terrestrial Mammal BioLogos Calls a "Whale" - November 2010
Whale Tale Two
Excerpt: We think that the most logical interpretation of the Pakicetus fossils are that they represent land-dwelling mammals that didn’t even have teeth or ears in common with modern whales. This actually pulls the whale evolution tree out by the roots. Evolutionists are back to the point of not having any clue as to how land mammals could possibly have evolved into whales.
Whale Evolution? Darwinist 'Trawlers' Have Every Reason To Be Concerned:
Excerpt: As one review noted: "The anatomical structure, biological function, and way of life of whales are so distinctly different from those of terrestrial mammals that they cannot possibly have evolved from the latter by small genetic changes; aquatics require the simultaneous presence of all their complex features to survive."
What Does It take To Change A Cow Into A Whale - David Berlinski - video
It seems the entire argument for inferring the supposed fossil sequence for whale evolution, in the fossil record, is primarily based on the erroneous readings of 'bone homology', or bone similarity, between different species. Yet this entire line of reasoning, for establishing scientific certainty for any proposed evolutionary sequence of fossils, is anything but 'certain', as this following video and quote clearly point out:
Investigating Evolution: Homology - video
If you want to make evolutionist Henry Gee mad at you remind him that he once wrote this following 'true' statement:
“To take a line of fossils and claim that they represent a lineage is not a scientific hypothesis that can be tested, but an assertion that carries the same validity as a bedtime story, amusing, perhaps even instructive, but not scientific.”
Evolutionist - Henry Gee, editor of Nature, on the feasibility of reconstructing phylogenetic trees from fossils
Intelligent Design - The Anthropic Hypothesis