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Functional Medicine Associates are a team of dedicated IFM certified practitioners. Founded by Pete Williams, who was the first IFM certified practitioner in the UK, the practice is located in the prestigious Harley Street district of Central London. IFM certification is a badge of quality and commitment, that few have achieved. Certification sets them apart from others who may only be starting out on their road to becoming a Functional Medicine practitioner.
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SIGNATURE IN THE CELL by Stephen C. Meyer *******www.signatureinthecell****/ Journey Inside The Cell - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=1fiJupfbSpg Evolution vs. Functional Proteins - Doug Axe - Video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=M4FvdOxIDfU Estimating the prevalence of protein sequences adopting functional enzyme folds: Doug Axe: Excerpt: Combined with the estimated prevalence of plausible hydropathic patterns (for any fold) and of relevant folds for particular functions, this implies the overall prevalence of sequences performing a specific function by any domain-sized fold may be as low as 1 in 10^77, adding to the body of evidence that functional folds require highly extraordinary sequences. *******www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15321723 Refutation of Szostak's 1 in 10^12 functional protein paper: A Man-Made ATP-Binding Protein Evolved Independent of Nature Causes Abnormal Growth in Bacterial Cells Excerpt: "Recent advances in de novo protein evolution have made it possible to create synthetic proteins from unbiased libraries that fold into stable tertiary structures with predefined functions. However, it is not known whether such proteins will be functional when expressed inside living cells or how a host organism would respond to an encounter with a non-biological protein. Here, we examine the physiology and morphology of Escherichia coli cells engineered to express a synthetic ATP-binding protein evolved entirely from non-biological origins. We show that this man-made protein disrupts the normal energetic balance of the cell by altering the levels of intracellular ATP. This disruption cascades into a series of events that ultimately limit reproductive competency by inhibiting cell division." *******www.plosone****/article/info:doi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0007385 Eighty percent of proteins are different between humans and chimpanzees; Gene; Volume 346, 14 February 2005: *******www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15716009 Yet by the late 1980s it was becoming obvious to most genetic researchers, including myself, since my own main research interest in the 80s and 90s was human genetics, that the heroic effort to find the information specifying lifes order in the genes had failed. There was no longer the slightest justification for believing that there exists anything in the genome remotely resembling a program capable of specifying in detail all the complex order of the phenotype (Body Plan)." Michael John Denton page 172 of Uncommon Dissent Waiting Longer for Two Mutations, Part 5 - Michael Behe Excerpt: the appearance of a particular (beneficial) double mutation in humans would have an expected time of appearance of 216 million years, *******behe.uncommondescent****/2009/03/waiting-longer-for-two-mutations-part-5/ Cortical Inheritance: The Crushing Critique Against Genetic Reductionism - Arthur Jones - video Part 1 *******www.youtube****/watch?v=5JzQ8ingdNY Part 2 *******www.youtube****/watch?v=o1bAX93zQ5o Darwin's Theory - Fruit Flies and Morphology - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=hZJTIwRY0bs Evolution vs ATP Synthase - Molecular Machine - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=qE3QJMI-ljc The Coding Found In DNA Surpasses Mans Ability to Code - Stephen Meyer - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=HavmzWVt8IU Mathematically Defining Functional Information In Molecular Biology - Kirk Durston - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=vUeCgTN7pOo The malaria parasite, and AIDS virus, due to their comparatively enormous population size, have in 1 year more mutation/duplication/selection events than all mammal lineages have had in the entire +100 million years they have been in the fossil record. What do we see? Michael Behe, The Edge of Evolution, pg. 162 Swine Flu, Viruses, and the Edge of Evolution "Indeed, the work on malaria and AIDS demonstrates that after all possible unintelligent processes in the cell--both ones we've discovered so far and ones we haven't--at best extremely limited benefit, since no such process was able to do much of anything. It's critical to notice that no artificial limitations were placed on the kinds of mutations or processes the microorganisms could undergo in nature. Nothing--neither point mutation, deletion, insertion, gene duplication, transposition, genome duplication, self-organization nor any other process yet undiscovered--was of much use." *******www.evolutionnews****/2009/05/swine_flu_viruses_and_the_edge.html Intelligent Design - The Anthropic Hypothesis *******lettherebelight-77.blogspot****/
2 Jun 2010
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Design without a Designer? — December 9th, 2009 by Douglas Axe Excerpt: For one protein subjected to this kind of experiment, the conclusion was that working sequences are as rare as one in a trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion. In other words, they are unimaginably rare— far too rare to be stumbled upon by any unguided search, such as a Darwinian search. Notice that this isn't a negative result in the sense of an unsuccessful attempt to measure something. The measurement was successful. Some will still see it as a negative result in that it precludes unguided searches. But since we do in fact encounter meaningful sentences every day, we know that intelligence is fully capable of producing what chance simply cannot produce. So we ought also to see this as a positive result— one that confirms the design explanation just as decisively as it refutes the Darwinian one. *******biologicinstitute****/2009/12/09/design-without-a-designer/ Eighty percent of proteins are different between humans and chimpanzees; Gene; Volume 346, 14 February 2005: *******www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15716009 John 1:1-3 In the beginning, the Word existed. The Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was with God in the beginning Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made. (of note: "Word" in Greek is "Logos", and is the root word from which we get our word "Logic") Darwin's Dilemma Trailer - Excellent Cambrian Explosion Movie Now Available On DVD - Sept. 2009 *******www.illustramedia****/ddinfo.htm Estimating the prevalence of protein sequences adopting functional enzyme folds: Doug Axe: Excerpt: this implies the overall prevalence of sequences performing a specific function by any domain-sized fold may be as low as 1 in 10^77, adding to the body of evidence that functional folds require highly extraordinary sequences. (of note: the universe only has 10^80 sub-atomic particles) *******www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15321723 A Man-Made ATP-Binding Protein Evolved Independent of Nature Causes Abnormal Growth in Bacterial Cells Excerpt: "Recent advances in de novo protein evolution have made it possible to create synthetic proteins from unbiased libraries that fold into stable tertiary structures with predefined functions. However, it is not known whether such proteins will be functional when expressed inside living cells or how a host organism would respond to an encounter with a non-biological protein. Here, we examine the physiology and morphology of Escherichia coli cells engineered to express a synthetic ATP-binding protein evolved entirely from non-biological origins. We show that this man-made protein disrupts the normal energetic balance of the cell by altering the levels of intracellular ATP. This disruption cascades into a series of events that ultimately limit reproductive competency by inhibiting cell division." *******www.plosone****/article/info:doi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0007385 Evolution vs ATP Synthase - Molecular Machine - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=qE3QJMI-ljc Mutations are rare phenomena, and a simultaneous change of even two amino acid residues in one protein is totally unlikely. One could think, for instance, that by constantly changing amino acids one by one, it will eventually be possible to change the entire sequence substantially These minor changes, however, are bound to eventually result in a situation in which the enzyme has ceased to perform its previous function but has not yet begun its new duties. It is at this point it will be destroyed - along with the organism carrying it. Maxim D. Frank-Kamenetski, Unraveling DNA, 1997, p. 72. (Professor at Brown U. Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering) The Ribosome, which makes the proteins, is found to be severely intolerant to any "random mutations". The Ribosome: Perfectionist Protein-maker Trashes Errors Excerpt: The enzyme machine that translates a cell's DNA code into the proteins of life is nothing if not an editorial perfectionist...the ribosome exerts far tighter quality control than anyone ever suspected over its precious protein products... To their further surprise, the ribosome lets go of error-laden proteins 10,000 times faster than it would normally release error-free proteins, a rate of destruction that Green says is "shocking" and reveals just how much of a stickler the ribosome is about high-fidelity protein synthesis. *******www.sciencedaily****/releases/2009/01/090107134529.htm Intelligent Design - The Anthropic Hypothesis *******lettherebelight-77.blogspot****/
9 Feb 2010
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The oldest sedimentary rocks on earth, known to science, originated underwater (and thus in relatively cool environs) 3.86 billion years ago. Those sediments, which are exposed at Isua in southwestern Greenland, also contain the earliest chemical evidence (fingerprint) of “photosynthetic” life [Nov. 7, 1996, Nature]. This evidence had been fought by materialists since it is totally contrary to their evolutionary theory. Yet, Danish scientists were able to bring forth another line of geological evidence to substantiate the primary line of geological evidence for photo-synthetic life in the earth’s earliest sedimentary rocks (U-rich Archaean sea-floor sediments from Greenland - indications of +3700 Ma oxygenic photosynthesis (2003). Thus we now have conclusive evidence for photo-synthetic life in the oldest sedimentary rocks ever found by scientists on earth. The simplest photosynthetic bacterial life on earth is exceedingly complex, too complex to happen by accident even if the primeval oceans had been full of pre-biotic soup. The Miracle Of Photosynthesis - electron transport - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=hj_WKgnL6MI Evolutionary biology: Out of thin air John F. Allen & William Martin: The measure of the problem is here: “Oxygenetic photosynthesis involves about 100 proteins that are highly ordered within the photosynthetic membranes of the cell." *******www.nature****/nature/journal/v445/n7128/full/445610a.html Stephen Meyer - Functional Proteins And Information For Body Plans - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4050681/stephen_meyer_functional_proteins_and_information_for_body_plans/ Evolution vs ATP Synthase - Molecular Machine - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4012706/evolution_vs_atp_synthase_molecular_machine/ Signature in the Cell - Book Review - Ken Peterson Excerpt: the “simplest extant cell, Mycoplasma genitalium — a tiny bacterium that inhabits the human urinary tract — requires ‘only’ 482 proteins to perform its necessary functions…(562,000 bases of DNA…to assemble those proteins).” ,,, amino acids have to congregate in a definite specified sequence in order to make something that “works.” First of all they have to form a “peptide” bond and this seems to only happen about half the time in experiments. Thus, the probability of building a chain of 150 amino acids containing only peptide links is about one chance in 10 to the 45th power. In addition, another requirement for living things is that the amino acids must be the “left-handed” version. But in “abiotic amino-acid production” the right- and left-handed versions are equally created. Thus, to have only left-handed, only peptide bonds between amino acids in a chain of 150 would be about one chance in 10 to the 90th. Moreover, in order to create a functioning protein the “amino acids, like letters in a meaningful sentence, must link up in functionally specified sequential arrangements.” It turns out that the probability for this is about one in 10 to the 74th. Thus, the probability of one functional protein of 150 amino acids forming by random chance is (1 in) 10 to the 164th. If we assume some minimally complex cell requires 250 different proteins then the probability of this arrangement happening purely by chance is one in 10 to the 164th multiplied by itself 250 times or one in 10 to the 41,000th power. *******www.spectrummagazine****/reviews/book_reviews/2009/10/06/signature_cell First-Ever Blueprint of 'Minimal Cell' Is More Complex Than Expected - Nov. 2009 Excerpt: A network of research groups,, approached the bacterium at three different levels. One team of scientists described M. pneumoniae's transcriptome, identifying all the RNA molecules, or transcripts, produced from its DNA, under various environmental conditions. Another defined all the metabolic reactions that occurred in it, collectively known as its metabolome, under the same conditions. A third team identified every multi-protein complex the bacterium produced, thus characterising its proteome organisation. "At all three levels, we found M. pneumoniae was more complex than we expected," *******www.sciencedaily****/releases/2009/11/091126173027.htm Dr. Hugh Ross - Origin Of Life Paradox - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4012696/origin_of_life_paradox_hugh_ross/ "The Origin-of-Life Prize" ® (hereafter called "the Prize") will be awarded for proposing a highly plausible mechanism for the spontaneous rise of genetic instructions in nature sufficient to give rise to life. *******www.us****/life/index.htm Materialists have tried to get around this crushing evidence for the sudden appearance of life by suggesting life could originate in extreme conditions. Yet they are betrayed once again by the empirical evidence: Refutation Of Hyperthermophile Origin Of Life scenario Excerpt: While life, if appropriately designed, can survive under extreme physical and chemical conditions, it cannot originate under those conditions. High temperatures are especially catastrophic for evolutionary models. The higher the temperature climbs, the shorter the half-life for all the crucial building block molecules, *******www.reasons****/LateHeavyBombardmentIntensityandtheOriginofLife Chemist explores the membranous origins of the first living cell: Excerpt: Conditions in geothermal springs and similar extreme environments just do not favor membrane formation, which is inhibited or disrupted by acidity, dissolved salts, high temperatures, and calcium, iron, and magnesium ions. Furthermore, mineral surfaces in these clay-lined pools tend to remove phosphates and organic chemicals from the solution. "We have to face up to the biophysical facts of life," Deamer said. "Hot, acidic hydrothermal systems are not conducive to self-assembly processes." *******currents.ucsc.edu/05-06/04-03/deamer.asp Intelligent Design - The Anthropic Hypothesis *******lettherebelight-77.blogspot****/
17 Jun 2010
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Evolution Vs ATP Synthase - Molecular Machine - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4012706 Evolution Vs. Functional Proteins - Where Did The Information Come From? - Doug Axe - Stephen Meyer - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4018222 "There are no detailed Darwinian accounts for the evolution of any fundamental biochemical or cellular system only a variety of wishful speculations. It is remarkable that Darwinism is accepted as a satisfactory explanation of such a vast subject." James Shapiro - Molecular Biologist ATP Synthase achieves nearly 100% efficiency which far surpasses any human engineered motor: A rotary molecular motor that can work at near 100% efficiency: Excerpt: In cells, the free energy of ATP hydrolysis is ca. 90 pN nm per ATP molecule, suggesting that the F1 motor can work at near 100% efficiency. We confirmed in vitro that F1 indeed does ca. 80 pN nm of work under the condition where the free energy per ATP is 90 pN nm. The high efficiency may be related to the fully reversible nature of the F1 motor: *******rstb.royalsocietypublishing****/content/355/1396/473.abstract Worlds Smallest Rotary Engine Highlighted Excerpt: The match implies 100% efficiency for the conversion of the Gibbs free energy of ATP hydrolysis into mechanical work performed on the elastically strained filament. This is not surprising given the approximate thermodynamic equilibrium of the enzyme (long)-filament construct. *******www.creationsafaris****/crev200905.htm#20090525a ATP: The Perfect Energy Currency for the Cell Jerry Bergman, Ph.D. *******www.trueorigin****/atp.asp Astonishingly, and to the dismay of atheistic evolutionists, actual motors, which far surpass man-made motors in 'engineering parameters', are now being found inside 'simple cells'. Articles and Videos on Molecular Motors *******docs.google****/Doc?docid=0AYmaSrBPNEmGZGM4ejY3d3pfMzlkNjYydmRkZw&hl=en Bacterial Flagellum - A Sheer Wonder Of Intelligent Design - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/3994630 Biologist Howard Berg at Harvard calls the Bacterial Flagellum “the most efficient machine in the universe." Michael Behe on Falsifying Intelligent Design - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=N8jXXJN4o_A The Cell as a Collection of Protein Machines "We have always underestimated cells. Undoubtedly we still do today,,, Indeed, the entire cell can be viewed as a factory that contains an elaborate network of interlocking assembly lines, each which is composed of a set of large protein machines." Bruce Alberts: Former President, National Academy of Sciences; *******www.imbb.forth.gr/people/aeconomou/documents/Alberts98.pdf The Cell - A World Of Complexity Darwin Never Dreamed Of - Donald E. Johnson - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4139390 The inner life of a cell - Harvard University - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=BtZEqQ1cpmk User's guide to the video *******sparkleberrysprings****/innerlifeofcell.html Cells Are Like Robust Computational Systems, - June 2009 Excerpt: "We now have reason to think of cells as robust computational devices, employing redundancy in the same way that enables large computing systems, such as Amazon, to keep operating despite the fact that servers routinely fail." *******www.sciencedaily****/releases/2009/06/090616103205.htm Simulations reveal new information about the gateway to the cell nucleus Excerpt: “There are whole machines in living cells that are made of hundreds or thousands of proteins,” says Schulten, “and the nuclear pore is one of those systems. It’s actually one of the most magnificent systems in the cell.”,,,Hundreds to thousands of NPCs are embedded in the nuclear envelope of each cell,"... *******www.psc.edu/science/2006/schulten/ Primary Cilium As Cellular 'GPS System' Crucial To Wound Repair Excerpt: The primary cilium, the solitary, antenna-like structure that studs the outer surfaces of virtually all human cells, orient cells to move in the right direction and at the speed needed to heal wounds, much like a Global Positioning System helps ships navigate to their destinations. "What we are dealing with is a physiological analogy to the GPS system with a coupled autopilot that coordinates air traffic or tankers on open sea," *******www.sciencedaily****/releases/2008/12/081217190330.htm Intelligent Design - The Anthropic Hypothesis *******lettherebelight-77.blogspot****/
31 Mar 2010
1729
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The Cell - A World Of Complexity Darwin Never Dreamed Of - Donald E. Johnson - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4139390 Articles and Videos on Molecular Motors *******docs.google****/Doc?docid=0AYmaSrBPNEmGZGM4ejY3d3pfMzlkNjYydmRkZw&hl=en Cells Are Like Robust Computational Systems, - June 2009 Excerpt: Gene regulatory networks in cell nuclei are similar to cloud computing networks, such as Google or Yahoo!, researchers report today in the online journal Molecular Systems Biology. The similarity is that each system keeps working despite the failure of individual components, whether they are master genes or computer processors. ,,,,"We now have reason to think of cells as robust computational devices, employing redundancy in the same way that enables large computing systems, such as Amazon, to keep operating despite the fact that servers routinely fail." *******www.sciencedaily****/releases/2009/06/090616103205.htm Systems biology: Untangling the protein web - July 2009 Excerpt: Vidal thinks that technological improvements — especially in nanotechnology, to generate more data, and microscopy, to explore interaction inside cells, along with increased computer power — are required to push systems biology forward. "Combine all this and you can start to think that maybe some of the information flow can be captured," he says. But when it comes to figuring out the best way to explore information flow in cells, Tyers jokes that it is like comparing different degrees of infinity. "The interesting point coming out of all these studies is how complex these systems are — the different feedback loops and how they cross-regulate each other and adapt to perturbations are only just becoming apparent," he says. "The simple pathway models are a gross oversimplification of what is actually happening." *******www.nature****/nature/journal/v460/n7253/full/460415a.html Three Subsets of Sequence Complexity and Their Relevance to Biopolymeric Information - David L. Abel and Jack T. Trevors - Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling, Vol. 2, 11 August 2005, page 8 "No man-made program comes close to the technical brilliance of even Mycoplasmal genetic algorithms. Mycoplasmas are the simplest known organism with the smallest known genome, to date. How was its genome and other living organisms' genomes programmed?" *******www.biomedcentral****/content/pdf/1742-4682-2-29.pdf Simulations reveal new information about the gateway to the cell nucleus Excerpt: “There are whole machines in living cells that are made of hundreds or thousands of proteins,” says Schulten, “and the nuclear pore is one of those systems. It’s actually one of the most magnificent systems in the cell.”,,,Hundreds to thousands of NPCs are embedded in the nuclear envelope of each cell,"... *******www.psc.edu/science/2006/schulten/ Life Leads the Way to Invention - Feb. 2010 Excerpt: a cell is 10,000 times more energy-efficient than a transistor. “ In one second, a cell performs about 10 million energy-consuming chemical reactions, which altogether require about one picowatt (one millionth millionth of a watt) of power.” This and other amazing facts lead to an obvious conclusion: inventors ought to look to life for ideas.,,, Essentially, cells may be viewed as circuits that use molecules, ions, proteins and DNA instead of electrons and transistors. That analogy suggests that it should be possible to build electronic chips – what Sarpeshkar calls “cellular chemical computers” – that mimic chemical reactions very efficiently and on a very fast timescale. *******creationsafaris****/crev201002.htm#20100226a “Each cell with genetic information, from bacteria to man, consists of artificial languages and their decoding systems, memory banks for information storage and retrieval, elegant control systems regulating the automated assembly of parts and components, error fail-safe and proof-reading devices utilized for quality control, assembly processes involving the principle of prefabrication and modular construction and a capacity not equaled in any of our most advanced machines, for it would be capable of replicating its entire structure within a matter of a few hours" Geneticist Michael Denton PhD. Evolution: A Theory In Crisis pg. 329 "To grasp the reality of life as it has been revealed by molecular biology, we must first magnify a cell a thousand million times until it is 20 kilometers in diameter and resembles a giant airship large enough to cover a great city like London or New York. What we would see then would be an object of unparalleled complexity,...we would find ourselves in a world of supreme technology and bewildering complexity." Geneticist Michael Denton PhD., Evolution: A Theory In Crisis, pg.328 Michael Behe - Life Reeks Of Design - 2010 - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/5066181 And in spite of the fact of finding molecular motors permeating the simplest of bacterial life, there are no detailed Darwinian accounts for the evolution of even one such motor or system. "There are no detailed Darwinian accounts for the evolution of any fundamental biochemical or cellular system only a variety of wishful speculations. It is remarkable that Darwinism is accepted as a satisfactory explanation of such a vast subject. James Shapiro - Molecular Biologist The following expert doesn't even hide his very unscientific preconceived philosophical bias against intelligent design,,, ‘We should reject, as a matter of principle, the substitution of intelligent design for the dialogue of chance and necessity,,, Yet at the same time the same expert readily admits that neo-Darwinism has ZERO evidence for the chance and necessity of material processes producing any cellular system whatsoever,,, ,,,we must concede that there are presently no detailed Darwinian accounts of the evolution of any biochemical or cellular system, only a variety of wishful speculations.’ Franklin M. Harold,* 2001. The way of the cell: molecules, organisms and the order of life, Oxford University Press, New York, p. 205. *Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry, Colorado State University, USA Michael Behe - No Scientific Literature For Evolution of Any Irreducibly Complex Molecular Machines *******www.metacafe****/watch/5302950/ “The response I have received from repeating Behe's claim about the evolutionary literature, which simply brings out the point being made implicitly by many others, such as Chris Dutton and so on, is that I obviously have not read the right books. There are, I am sure, evolutionists who have described how the transitions in question could have occurred.” And he continues, “When I ask in which books I can find these discussions, however, I either get no answer or else some titles that, upon examination, do not, in fact, contain the promised accounts. That such accounts exist seems to be something that is widely known, but I have yet to encounter anyone who knows where they exist.” David Ray Griffin - retired professor of philosophy of religion and theology Doug Axe Knows His Work Better Than Steve Matheson Excerpt: Regardless of how the trials are performed, the answer ends up being at least half of the total number of password possibilities, which is the staggering figure of 10^77 (written out as 100, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000). Armed with this calculation, you should be very confident in your skepticism, because a 1 in 10^77 chance of success is, for all practical purposes, no chance of success. My experimentally based estimate of the rarity of functional proteins produced that same figure, making these likewise apparently beyond the reach of chance. *******www.evolutionnews****/2010/06/doug_axe_knows_his_work_better035561.html Evolution vs. Functional Proteins - Doug Axe - Video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4018222 Intelligent Design - The Anthropic Hypothesis *******lettherebelight-77.blogspot****/2009/10/intelligent-design-anthropic-hypothesis_19.html
31 Jul 2011
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related footnotes on Dr. Axe’s work: Nothing In Molecular Biology Is Gradual – Doug Axe PhD. – video Quote – “Charles Darwin said (paraphrase), ‘If anyone could find anything that could not be had through a number of slight, successive, modifications, my theory would absolutely break down.’ Well that condition has been met time and time again. Basically every gene, every protein fold. There is nothing of significance that we can show that can be had in a gradualist way. It’s a mirage. None of it happens that way. – Doug Axe PhD. *******www.metacafe****/watch/5347797/ Estimating the prevalence of protein sequences adopting functional enzyme folds: Doug Axe: 2004 Excerpt: The prevalence of low-level function in four such experiments indicates that roughly one in 10^64 signature-consistent sequences forms a working domain. Combined with the estimated prevalence of plausible hydropathic patterns (for any fold) and of relevant folds for particular functions, this implies the overall prevalence of sequences performing a specific function by any domain-sized fold may be as low as 1 in 10^77, adding to the body of evidence that functional folds require highly extraordinary sequences. *******www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15321723 Doug Axe Knows His Work Better Than Steve Matheson Excerpt: Regardless of how the trials are performed, the answer ends up being at least half of the total number of password possibilities, which is the staggering figure of 10^77 (written out as 100, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000). Armed with this calculation, you should be very confident in your skepticism, because a 1 in 10^77 chance of success is, for all practical purposes, no chance of success. My experimentally based estimate of the rarity of functional proteins produced that same figure, making these likewise apparently beyond the reach of chance. *******www.evolutionnews****/2010/06/doug_axe_knows_his_work_better035561.html The Case Against a Darwinian Origin of Protein Folds – Douglas Axe – 2010 Excerpt Pg. 11: “Based on analysis of the genomes of 447 bacterial species, the projected number of different domain structures per species averages 991. Comparing this to the number of pathways by which metabolic processes are carried out, which is around 263 for E. coli, provides a rough figure of three or four new domain folds being needed, on average, for every new metabolic pathway. In order to accomplish this successfully, an evolutionary search would need to be capable of locating sequences that amount to anything from one in 10^159 to one in 10^308 possibilities, something the neo-Darwinian model falls short of by a very wide margin.” *******bio-complexity****/ojs/index.php/main/article/view/BIO-C.2010.1 Not only are functional proteins found to be extremely rare, thus undermining Darwinian presuppositions, but, as Dr. Axe pointed out in the OP video, the transition of any existent functional protein to a protein of a different function, by unguided Darwinian processes, is found to be of extreme, prohibitive, difficulty as well. The Evolutionary Accessibility of New Enzyme Functions: A Case Study from the Biotin Pathway – Ann K. Gauger and Douglas D. Axe – April 2011 Excerpt: We infer from the mutants examined that successful functional conversion would in this case require seven or more nucleotide substitutions. But evolutionary innovations requiring that many changes would be extraordinarily rare, becoming probable only on timescales much longer than the age of life on earth. *******bio-complexity****/ojs/index.php/main/article/view/BIO-C.2011.1/BIO-C.2011.1 When Theory and Experiment Collide — April 16th, 2011 by Douglas Axe Excerpt: Based on our experimental observations and on calculations we made using a published population model [3], we estimated that Darwin’s mechanism would need a truly staggering amount of time—a trillion trillion years or more—to accomplish the seemingly subtle change in enzyme function that we studied. *******www.biologicinstitute****/post/18022460402/when-theory-and-experiment-collide “Biologist Douglas Axe on Evolution’s (non) Ability to Produce New (Protein) Functions ” – video Quote: It turns out once you get above the number six [changes in amino acids] — and even at lower numbers actually — but once you get above the number six you can pretty decisively rule out an evolutionary transition because it would take far more time than there is on planet Earth and larger populations than there are on planet Earth. *******intelligentdesign.podomatic****/entry/2012-10-15T16_05_14-07_00 The Real Barrier to Unguided Human Evolution – Dr. Ann Gauger – April 25, 2012 Excerpt: Their results? They calculated it would take six million years for a single base change to match the target and spread throughout the population, and 216 million years to get both base changes necessary to complete the eight base binding site. Note that the entire time span for our evolution from the last common ancestor with chimps is estimated to be about six million years. Time enough for one mutation to occur and be fixed, by their account. To be sure, they did say that since there are some 20,000 genes that could be evolving simultaneously, the problem is not impossible. But they overlooked this point. Mutations occur at random and most of the time independently, but their effects are not independent. (Random) Mutations that benefit one trait (are shown to) inhibit another (Negative Epistasis; Lenski e-coli after 50,000 generations). *******www.evolutionnews****/2012/04/the_real_barrie058951.html More from Dr. Ann Gauger on why humans didn’t happen the way Darwin said – July 2012 Excerpt: Each of these new features probably required multiple mutations. Getting a feature that requires six neutral mutations is the limit of what bacteria can produce. For primates (e.g., monkeys, apes and humans) the limit is much more severe. Because of much smaller effective population sizes (an estimated ten thousand for humans instead of a billion for bacteria) and longer generation times (fifteen to twenty years per generation for humans vs. a thousand generations per year for bacteria), it would take a very long time for even a single beneficial mutation to appear and become fixed in a human population. You don’t have to take my word for it. In 2007, Durrett and Schmidt estimated in the journal Genetics that for a single mutation to occur in a nucleotide-binding site and be fixed in a primate lineage would require a waiting time of six million years. The same authors later estimated it would take 216 million years for the binding site to acquire two mutations, if the first mutation was neutral in its effect. Facing Facts But six million years is the entire time allotted for the transition from our last common ancestor with chimps to us according to the standard evolutionary timescale. Two hundred and sixteen million years takes us back to the Triassic, when the very first mammals appeared. One or two mutations simply aren’t sufficient to produce the necessary changes— sixteen anatomical features—in the time available. At most, a new binding site might affect the regulation of one or two genes. *******www.uncommondescent****/intelligent-design/more-from-ann-gauger-on-why-humans-didnt-happen-the-way-darwin-said/ There is also very good, indeed overwhelming, evidence as to why we should expect such severe constraint on the ability of proteins to mutate, step by step, amino acid by amino acid, from one function to another different function. Proteins are shown to be ‘context dependent’, meaning that the entirety of the amino acid sequence of a protein domain is involved in a specific function and is not built up gradually. The following notes flesh this ‘context dependent’ characteristic of proteins out: Why Proteins Aren’t Easily Recombined, Part 2 – Dr. Ann Gauger - May 17, 2012 Excerpt: In other words, even if only 10% of non-matching residues were changed, the resulting hybrid enzyme no longer functioned. Why? Because the substitution of different amino acids into the existing protein structure destabilized the fold, even though those same amino acids worked well in another context. Thus, each protein’s amino acid sequence works as a whole to help generate a proper stable fold, in a context-dependent fashion. *******www.evolutionnews****/2012/05/why_proteins_ar_1059771.html As well, functional proteins have now been shown to have a ‘Cruise Control’ mechanism, along the entirety of a protein structure, which works to ‘self-correct’ the integrity of a entire protein structure from any random mutations imposed on it. Proteins with cruise control provide new perspective: 2008 “A mathematical analysis of the experiments showed that the proteins themselves acted to correct any imbalance imposed on them through artificial mutations and restored the chain to working order.” *******www.princeton.edu/main/news/archive/S22/60/95O56/ Cruise Control permeating the whole of the protein structure??? This is an absolutely fascinating discovery. The equations of calculus involved in achieving even a simple process control loop, such as a dynamic cruise control loop, are very complex. In fact it seems readily apparent to me that highly advanced mathematical information must somehow ‘transcendentally permeate’ along the entirety of a protein structure, in order to achieve such control of the overall protein structure. This fact gives us clear evidence that there is far more functional information permeating proteins than meets the eye than simple rarity of amino acid sequences reveals (Szostak). Moreover this ‘oneness’ of cruise control, within the protein structure, can only ‘rationally’ be achieved through quantum computation/entanglement principles, and is inexplicable to the reductive materialistic approach of neo-Darwinism! For a sample of the equations that must be dealt with, to ‘engineer’ even a simple process control loop like cruise control for a single protein, please see this following site: PID controller A proportional–integral–derivative controller (PID controller) is a generic control loop feedback mechanism (controller) widely used in industrial control systems. A PID controller attempts to correct the error between a measured process variable and a desired setpoint by calculating and then outputting a corrective action that can adjust the process accordingly and rapidly, to keep the error minimal. *******en.wikipedia****/wiki/PID_controller It is in realizing the staggering level of engineering that must be dealt with, i.e. ‘intelligently designed’ beforehand, in order to achieve ‘cruise control’ for each individual protein, along the entirety of the protein structure, that it becomes apparent that Axe’s 1 in 10^77 estimate for rarity of finding specific functional proteins within ‘sequence space’ is, in all likelihood, far, far too generous. In fact the probabilities over various ‘specific’ configurations of amino acids within sequence space, which have been one of the primary arguments against neo-Darwinism thus far, simply do not even apply, at all, since the ’cause’ for the ‘non-local quantum information effect’ within proteins does not even reside within the material particles in the first place (i.e. falsification of local realism; (Einstein, Bohr, Bell, Wheeler, Aspect, Zeilinger). The following footnotes are further corroborating evidence that ‘protein specific’ quantum information/entanglement resides along/within the entirety of a functional protein amino acid chain constraining the chain to a specific function: Coherent Intrachain energy migration at room temperature – Elisabetta Collini & Gregory Scholes – University of Toronto – Science, 323, (2009), pp. 369-73 Excerpt: The authors conducted an experiment to observe quantum coherence dynamics in relation to energy transfer. The experiment, conducted at room temperature, examined chain conformations, such as those found in the proteins of living cells. Neighbouring molecules along the backbone of a protein chain were seen to have coherent energy transfer. Where this happens quantum decoherence (the underlying tendency to loss of coherence due to interaction with the environment) is able to be resisted, and the evolution of the system remains entangled as a single quantum state. ********www.scimednet****/sapphire/main.php?url=/quantum-coherence-living-cells-and-protein/ Myosin Coherence Excerpt: Absorbance (and emission) of frequency specific radiation (e.g. photosynthesis, vision, [biophotons]..), conversion of chemical energy into mechanical motion (e.g. ATP cleavage) and single electron transfers through biological polymers (e.g. DNA or proteins) are all quantum mechanical effects. *******www.energetic-medicine****/bioenergetic-articles/articles/63/1/Myosin-Coherence/Page1.html Cellular Communication through Light Excerpt: Information transfer is a life principle. On a cellular level we generally assume that molecules are carriers of information, yet there is evidence for non-molecular information transfer due to endogenous coherent light. This light is ultra-weak, is emitted by many organisms, including humans and is conventionally described as biophoton emission. *******www.plosone****/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0005086 The mechanism and properties of bio-photon emission and absorption in protein molecules in living systems – May 2012 Excerpt: From the energy spectra, it was determined that the protein molecules could both radiate and absorb bio-photons with wavelengths of <3??m and 5–7??m, consistent with the energy level transitions of the excitons.,,, *******jap.aip****/resource/1/japiau/v111/i9/p093519_s1?isAuthorized=no Physicists Discover Quantum Law of Protein Folding – February 22, 2011 Quantum mechanics finally explains why protein folding depends on temperature in such a strange way. Excerpt: First, a little background on protein folding. Proteins are long chains of amino acids that become biologically active only when they fold into specific, highly complex shapes. The puzzle is how proteins do this so quickly when they have so many possible configurations to choose from. To put this in perspective, a relatively small protein of only 100 amino acids can take some 10^100 different configurations. If it tried these shapes at the rate of 100 billion a second, it would take longer than the age of the universe to find the correct one. Just how these molecules do the job in nanoseconds, nobody knows.,,, Their astonishing result is that this quantum transition model fits the folding curves of 15 different proteins and even explains the difference in folding and unfolding rates of the same proteins. That's a significant breakthrough. Luo and Lo's equations amount to the first universal laws of protein folding. That’s the equivalent in biology to something like the thermodynamic laws in physics. *******www.technologyreview****/view/423087/physicists-discover-quantum-law-of-protein/ As to the ‘minor problem' of protein folding itself: “Blue Gene’s final product, due in four or five years, will be able to “fold” a protein made of 300 amino acids, but that job will take an entire year of full-time computing.” Paul Horn, senior vice president of IBM research, September 21, 2000 *******www.news****/2100-1001-233954.html Networking a few hundred thousand computers together has reduced the time to a few weeks for simulating the folding of a single protein molecule: A Few Hundred Thousand Computers vs. A Single Protein Molecule – video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4018233 Not only are amino acid sequences of proteins shown to be ‘context dependent’ on the specific function of the protein, but, it turns out, that the function of the protein itself, in many cases, is context dependent on the specific function of the cell that a protein may be residing in: The Complexity of Gene Expression, Protein Interaction, and Cell Differentiation – Jill Adams, Ph.D. – 2008 Excerpt: it seems that a single protein can have dozens, if not hundreds, of different interactions,,, In a commentary that accompanied Stumpf’s article, Luis Nunes Amaral (2008) wrote, “These numbers provide a sobering view of where we stand in our cataloging of the human interactome. At present, we have identified less than 0.3% of all estimated interactions among human proteins. We are indeed at the dawn of systems biology.” *******www.nature****/scitable/topicpage/the-complexity-of-gene-expression-protein-interaction-34575 Human Genes: Alternative Splicing Far More Common Than Thought: – 2008 Excerpt: two different forms of the same protein, known as isoforms, can have different, even completely opposite functions. For example, one protein may activate cell death pathways while its close relative promotes cell survival. *******www.sciencedaily****/releases/2008/11/081102134623.htm Simplest Microbes More Complex than Thought – Dec. 2009 Excerpt: PhysOrg reported that a species of Mycoplasma,, “The bacteria appeared to be assembled in a far more complex way than had been thought.” Many molecules were found to have multiple functions: for instance, some enzymes could catalyze unrelated reactions, and some proteins were involved in multiple protein complexes.” *******www.creationsafaris****/crev200912.htm#20091229a Insight into cells could lead to new approach to medicines – 2010 Excerpt: Scientists expected to find simple links between individual proteins but were surprised to find that proteins were inter-connected in a complex web. Dr Victor Neduva, of the University of Edinburgh, who took part in the study, said: “Our studies have revealed an intricate network of proteins within cells that is much more complex than we previously thought. *******www.physorg****/news196402353.html Supplemental notes: Wheel of Fortune: New Work by Thornton’s Group Supports Time-Asymmetric Dollo’s Law – Michael Behe – October 5, 2011 Excerpt: Darwinian selection will fit a protein to its current task as tightly as it can. In the process, it makes it extremely difficult to adapt to a new task or revert to an old task by random mutation plus selection. *******www.evolutionnews****/2011/10/wheel_of_fortune_new_work_by_t051621.html Stability effects of mutations and protein evolvability. October 2009 Excerpt: The accepted paradigm that proteins can tolerate nearly any amino acid substitution has been replaced by the view that the deleterious effects of mutations, and especially their tendency to undermine the thermodynamic and kinetic stability of protein, is a major constraint on protein evolvability,, *******www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19765975 Corticosteroid Receptors in Vertebrates: Luck or Design? – Ann Gauger – October 11, 2011 Excerpt: if merely changing binding preferences is hard, even when you start with the right ancestral form, then converting an enzyme to a new function is completely beyond the reach of unguided evolution, no matter where you start. *******www.evolutionnews****/2011/10/luck_or_design051801.html “Mutations are rare phenomena, and a simultaneous change of even two amino acid residues in one protein is totally unlikely. One could think, for instance, that by constantly changing amino acids one by one, it will eventually be possible to change the entire sequence substantially… These minor changes, however, are bound to eventually result in a situation in which the enzyme has ceased to perform its previous function but has not yet begun its ‘new duties’. It is at this point it will be destroyed” Maxim D. Frank-Kamenetski, Unraveling DNA, 1997, p. 72. (Professor at Brown U. Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering) “A problem with the evolution of proteins having new shapes is that proteins are highly constrained, and producing a functional protein from a functional protein having a significantly different shape would typically require many mutations of the gene producing the protein. All the proteins produced during this transition would not be functional, that is, they would not be beneficial to the organism, or possibly they would still have their original function but not confer any advantage to the organism. It turns out that this scenario has severe mathematical problems that call the theory of evolution into question. Unless these problems can be overcome, the theory of evolution is in trouble.” Problems in Protein Evolution: Here are further notes that support the position that existing functional proteins are severely constrained in their ability to mutate step by step into new functions: Deciphering Design in the Genetic Code – Fazale Rana Excerpt: Sixty-four codons make up the genetic code. Because the genetic code only needs to encode 20 amino acids, some of the codons are redundant. That is, different codons code for the same amino acid. In fact, up to six different codons specify some amino acids. Others are specified by only one codon.,,, Genetic code rules incorporate a design that allows the cell to avoid the harmful effects of substitution mutations. For example, six codons encode the amino acid leucine (Leu). If at a particular amino acid position in a polypeptide, Leu is encoded by 5′ (pronounced five prime, a marker indicating the beginning of the codon). CUU, substitution mutations in the 3′ position from U to C, A, or G produce three new codons, 5′ CUC, 5′ CUA, and 5′ CUG, all of which code for Leu. The net effect produces no change in the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide. For this scenario, the cell successfully avoids the negative effects of a substitution mutation. Likewise, a change of C in the 5′ position to a U generates a new codon, 5′UUU, that specifies phenylalanine, an amino acid with similar physical and chemical properties to Leu. A change of C to an A or to a G produces codons that code for isoleucine and valine, respectively. These two amino acids also possess chemical and physical properties similar to leucine. Qualitatively, the genetic code appears constructed to minimize errors that result from substitution mutations.,,, The genetic code’s error-minimization properties are actually more dramatic than these results indicate. When researchers calculated the error-minimization capacity of one million randomly generated genetic codes, they discovered that the error-minimization values formed a distribution where the naturally occurring genetic code’s capacity occurred outside the distribution.18 Researchers estimate the existence of 10^18 possible genetic codes possessing the same type and degree of redundancy as the universal genetic code. All of these codes fall within the error-minimization distribution. This finding means that of 10^18 possible genetic codes, few, if any, have an error-minimization capacity that approaches the code found universally in nature. *******www.reasons****/articles/fyi-i.d.-in-dna-deciphering-design-in-the-genetic-code As well, the ‘errors/mutations’ that are found to occur in protein sequences are found to be ‘regulated errors’: Cells Defend Themselves from Viruses, Bacteria With Armor of Protein Errors – Nov. 2009 Excerpt: These “regulated errors” comprise a novel non-genetic mechanism by which cells can rapidly make important proteins more resistant to attack when stressed, *******www.sciencedaily****/releases/2009/11/091125134701.htm In fact there is little hope of a truly random (i.e. Darwinian) mutation ever making it through the gauntlet of the ribosome: The Ribosome: Perfectionist Protein-maker Trashes Errors Excerpt: The enzyme machine that translates a cell’s DNA code into the proteins of life is nothing if not an editorial perfectionist…the ribosome exerts far tighter quality control than anyone ever suspected over its precious protein products… To their further surprise, the ribosome lets go of error-laden proteins 10,000 times faster than it would normally release error-free proteins, a rate of destruction that Green says is “shocking” and reveals just how much of a stickler the ribosome is about high-fidelity protein synthesis.
16 Oct 2012
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10:26
Evolution vs. Functional Proteins - Doug Axe - Video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=M4FvdOxIDfU Estimating the prevalence of protein sequences adopting functional enzyme folds: Doug Axe: Excerpt: Starting with a weakly functional sequence carrying this signature, clusters of ten side-chains within the fold are replaced randomly, within the boundaries of the signature, and tested for function. The prevalence of low-level function in four such experiments indicates that roughly one in 10^64 signature-consistent sequences forms a working domain. Combined with the estimated prevalence of plausible hydropathic patterns (for any fold) and of relevant folds for particular functions, this implies the overall prevalence of sequences performing a specific function by any domain-sized fold may be as low as 1 in 10^77, adding to the body of evidence that functional folds require highly extraordinary sequences. *******www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15321723 The Capabilities of Chaos and Complexity: David L. Abel - Null Hypothesis For Information Generation - 2009 To focus the scientific communitys attention on its own tendencies toward overzealous metaphysical imagination bordering on wish-fulfillment, we propose the following readily falsifiable null hypothesis, and invite rigorous experimental attempts to falsify it: Physicodynamics cannot spontaneously traverse The Cybernetic Cut: physicodynamics alone cannot organize itself into formally functional systems requiring algorithmic optimization, computational halting, and circuit integration. *******www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2662469 *******mdpi****/1422-0067/10/1/247/ag Intelligent Design - The Anthropic Hypothesis *******lettherebelight-77.blogspot****/
12 Jan 2010
1367
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3:35
Just Folding One Single Protein Molecule, of which your body has countless trillions, would take a few hundred thousand computers weeks to accomplish. - Evolution vs. Functional Proteins - Doug Axe - Video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=M4FvdOxIDfU In real life, the protein folds into its final shape in a fraction of a second! The Blue Gene computer would have to operate at least 33 million times faster to accomplish what the protein does in a fraction of a second. This is the complexity found for JUST ONE simple protein molecule. Yet, evolution must account for the origination of far, far, more than just one specifically sequenced protein molecule: A New Guide to Exploring the Protein Universe "It is estimated, based on the total number of known life forms on Earth, that there are some 50 billion different types of proteins in existence today, and it is possible that the protein universe could hold many trillions more." Lynn Yarris - 2005 *******www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/sabl/2005/March/02-protein-universe.html Michael Behe Talks About The Probability of A Single Protein - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=WTvbp_oRFwM Origin Of Life? Where Does The Evidence Lead? - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=1VM_bYKRRxg What makes matters much worse for the materialist is that he will try to assert proteins of one structure can easily mutate into other proteins, of a completely different structure, by pure chance. Yet once again the empirical evidence we now have brutally betrays the materialist. Individual proteins have been experimentally shown to quickly lose their structural integrity with random point mutations. What are the odds of any "functional protein domain" in a cell mutating into any other functional protein domain, of very questionable value, by pure chance? Estimating the prevalence of protein sequences adopting functional enzyme folds: Doug Axe: Excerpt: Starting with a weakly functional sequence carrying this signature, clusters of ten side-chains within the fold are replaced randomly, within the boundaries of the signature, and tested for function. The prevalence of low-level function in four such experiments indicates that roughly one in 10^64 signature-consistent sequences forms a working domain. Combined with the estimated prevalence of plausible hydropathic patterns (for any fold) and of relevant folds for particular functions, this implies the overall prevalence of sequences performing a specific function by any domain-sized fold may be as low as 1 in 10^77, adding to the body of evidence that functional folds require highly extraordinary sequences. (of note: the universe only has 10^80 sub-atomic particles) *******www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15321723 Axe Diagram for finding a functional protein domain out of all sequence space: The y-axis can be seen as representing enzyme activity, and the x-axis represents all possible amino acid sequences. Enzymes sit at the peak of their fitness landscapes (Point A). There are extremely high levels of complex and specified information in proteins--informational sequences which point to intelligent design. *******www.evolutionnews****/axediagram.jpg Experimental Support for Regarding Functional Classes of Proteins to be Highly Isolated from Each Other: "From actual experimental results it can easily be calculated that the odds of finding a folded protein (by random point mutations to an existing protein) are about 1 in 10 to the 65 power (Sauer, MIT). To put this fantastic number in perspective imagine that someone hid a grain of sand, marked with a tiny 'X', somewhere in the Sahara Desert. After wandering blindfolded for several years in the desert you reach down, pick up a grain of sand, take off your blindfold, and find it has a tiny 'X'. Suspicious, you give the grain of sand to someone to hide again, again you wander blindfolded into the desert, bend down, and the grain you pick up again has an 'X'. A third time you repeat this action and a third time you find the marked grain. The odds of finding that marked grain of sand in the Sahara Desert three times in a row are about the same as finding one new functional protein structure (from chance transmutation of an existing functional protein structure). Rather than accept the result as a lucky coincidence, most people would be certain that the game had been fixed. Michael J. Behe, The Weekly Standard, June 7, 1999 *******www.arn****/docs/behe/mb_smu1992.htm Intelligent Design - The Anthropic Hypothesis *******lettherebelight-77.blogspot****/
6 Apr 2011
1326
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9:28
Information Theory: George Gilder at Bar-Ilan University *******intelligentdesign.podomatic****/player/web/2009-12-21T15_09_37-08_00 God's Creation - The Coded Language of DNA - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=hIF_dJVfutE "Evolution lacks a scientifically acceptable explanation of the source of the precisely planned codes within cells without which there can be no proteins and hence, no life." David A. Kaufman PhD. The Capabilities of Chaos and Complexity - David L. Abel - 2009 Excerpt: "A monstrous ravine runs through presumed objective reality. It is the great divide between physicality and formalism. On the one side of this Grand Canyon lies everything that can be explained by the chance and necessity of physicodynamics. On the other side lies those phenomena than can only be explained by formal choice contingency and decision theory—the ability to choose with intent what aspects of ontological being will be preferred, pursued, selected, rearranged, integrated, organized, preserved, and used. Physical dynamics includes spontaneous non linear phenomena, but not our formal applied-science called non linear dynamics(i.e. language,information). *******www.mdpi****/1422-0067/10/1/247/pdf i.e. There are no physical or chemical forces between the nucleotides along the linear axis of DNA (where the information is) that causes the sequence of nucleotides to exist as they do. In fact as far as the foundational laws of the universe are concerned the DNA molecule doesnt even have to exist at all. "There is no known law of nature, no known process and no known sequence of events which can cause information to originate by itself in matter" Werner Gitt - Former director of the German Federal Physics and Technology Institute The materialistic argument essentially appears to be like this: Premise One: No materialistic cause of specified complex information is known. Conclusion: Therefore, it must arise from some unknown materialistic cause. On the other hand, Stephen Meyer describes the intelligent design argument as follows: Premise One: Despite a thorough search, no material causes have been discovered that demonstrate the power to produce large amounts of specified information. Premise Two: Intelligent causes have demonstrated the power to produce large amounts of specified information. Conclusion: Intelligent design constitutes the best, most causally adequate, explanation for the information in the cell. As with evolution itself, the problem for the origin of life clearly turns out to be explaining where the information came from in the first place: The problem of the origin of life is clearly basically equivalent to the problem of the origin of biological information. Origin of life theorist Bernd-Olaf Kuppers in his book "Information and the Origin of Life". Natural selection cannot explain the origin of life Excerpt: DNA is not a special life-giving molecule, but a genetic databank that transmits its information using a mathematical code. Most of the workings of the cell are best described, not in terms of material stuff — hardware — but as information, or software. Trying to make life by mixing chemicals in a test tube is like soldering switches and wires in an attempt to produce Windows 98. It wont work because it addresses the problem at the wrong conceptual level. Paul Davies *******creation****/ns-origin-of-life "The belief of mechanist-reductionists that the chemical processes in living matter do not differ in principle from those in dead matter is incorrect. There is no trace of messages determining the results of chemical reactions in inanimate matter. If genetical processes were just complicated biochemistry, the laws of mass action and thermodynamics would govern the placement of amino acids in the protein sequences. Hubert P. Yockey: Information Theory, Evolution, and the Origin of Life, page 2 and 5 Evolution vs. Functional Proteins - Doug Axe - Video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=M4FvdOxIDfU Intelligent Design: Required by Biological Life? K.D. Kalinsky - Pg. 10 - 11 Case Three: an average 300 amino acid protein: Excerpt: It is reasonable, therefore, to estimate the functional information required for the average 300 amino acid protein to be around 700 bits of information. I(Ex) - Inat and ID (Intelligent Design) is 10^155 times more probable than mindless natural processes to produce the average protein. *******www.newscholars****/papers/ID%20Web%20Article.pdf Scientific Evidence For God Creating The Universe - 2008 - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=JQhO906v0VM Intelligent Design - The Anthropic Hypothesis *******lettherebelight-77.blogspot****/
30 Dec 2010
4944
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5:21
Most materialists are adamant Darwinian evolution is proven true when we look at the supposed 98.8% genetic similarity between chimps and man. Though suggestive, the gene similarity, even if true, is not nearly good enough to be considered conclusive scientific proof. Primarily this "lack of conclusiveness" is due to concerns with the second law of thermodynamics and with the Law of Conservation of Information. But of more pressing concern, body plans are not even encoded in the DNA code in the first place. This inability of body plans to be reduced directly to the DNA code is clearly shown by Cortical Inheritance. Cortical Inheritance: The Crushing Critique Against Genetic Reductionism - Arthur Jones - video Part 1 *******www.youtube****/watch?v=5JzQ8ingdNY Part 2 *******www.youtube****/watch?v=o1bAX93zQ5o Steven Meyer - Functional Proteins And Information For Body Plans - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=Ex8Fj8UAxc8 This inability for the DNA code to account for body plans is also clearly shown by extensive mutation studies to the DNA of different organisms which show "exceedingly rare" major morphological effects from mutations to the DNA code. Darwin's Theory - Fruit Flies and Morphology - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=hZJTIwRY0bs If all that wasn't enough, the Human Genome Project really put the last nail in the coffin for "Genetic Reductionism": DNA: The Alphabet of Life - David Klinghoffer Excerpt: But all this is trivial compared to the largely unheralded insight gained from the Human Genome Project, completed in 2003. The insight is disturbing. It is that while DNA codes for the cell's building blocks, the information needed to build the rest of the creature is seemingly, in large measure, absent. ,,,The physically encoded information to form that mouse, as opposed to that fly, isn't there. Instead, "It is as if the 'idea' of the fly (or any other organism) must somehow permeate the genome that gives rise to it." *******www.evolutionnews****/2009/07/dna_the_alphabet_of_life.html Thus the 98.8% similarity derived from the DNA code, to the body plans of chimps and man, is purely imaginary, since it is clearly shown that the overriding "architectural plan" of the body is not even encoded in the DNA in the first place. Of more clarity though, this "98.8% similarity evidence" is derived by materialists from a very biased methodology of presuming that the 1.5% of the genome, which directly codes for proteins, has complete precedence of consideration over the other remaining 98.5% of the genome which does not directly code for proteins. Yet even when considering just this 1.5% of the genome that codes for proteins, we find that the proteins, which are directly coded by that 1.5% of the genome, are shown to differ by a huge 80% difference between chimps and man. Chimps are not like humans - May 2004 Excerpt: the International Chimpanzee Chromosome 22 Consortium reports that 83% of chimpanzee chromosome 22 proteins are different from their human counterparts,,, The results reported this week showed that "83% of the genes have changed between the human and the chimpanzee—only 17% are identical—so that means that the impression that comes from the 1.2% [sequence] difference is [misleading]. In the case of protein structures, it has a big effect," Sakaki said. *******cmbi.bjmu.edu.cn/news/0405/119.htm Eighty percent of proteins are different between humans and chimpanzees; Gene; Volume 346, 14 February 2005: *******www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15716009 A recent, more accurate, human/chimp genome comparison study, by Richard Buggs in 2008, has found the true genome similarity between chimps and man fell to slightly below 70%! Why is this study ignored since the ENCODE study has now implicated 100% high level functionality across the entire human genome? Finding compelling evidence that implicates 100% high level functionality across the entire genome clearly shows the similarity is not to be limited to the very biased "only 1.5% of the genome" studies of materialists. Chimpanzee? 10-10-2008 - Dr Richard Buggs - research geneticist at the University of Florida ...Therefore the total similarity of the genomes could be below 70%. *******www.refdag.nl/artikel/1366432/Chimpanzee.html The chimpanzee is found to have a 12% larger genome than humans. Thus, at first glance it would seem the chimpanzee is more evolved than us, but this discrepancy is no anomaly of just chimps/humans. This disparity of genome sizes is found throughout life. There is no logical "evolutionary" progression to be found for the amount of DNA in less complex animals to the DNA found in more complex animals. In fact the genome sizes are known to vary widely between Kinds/Species and this mystery is known as the c-value enigma: Intelligent Design - The Anthropic Hypothesis *******lettherebelight-77.blogspot****/
18 Jan 2010
2739
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Biophysicist Hubert Yockey determined that natural selection would have to explore 1.40 x 10^70 different genetic codes to discover the optimal universal genetic code that is found in nature. The maximum amount of time available for it to originate is 6.3 x 10^15 seconds. Natural selection would have to evaluate roughly 10^55 codes per second to find the one that is optimal. Put simply, natural selection lacks the time necessary to find the optimal universal genetic code we find in nature. (Fazale Rana, -The Cell's Design - 2008 - page 177) Deciphering Design in the Genetic Code Excerpt: When researchers calculated the error-minimization capacity of one million randomly generated genetic codes, they discovered that the error-minimization values formed a distribution where the naturally occurring genetic code's capacity occurred outside the distribution. Researchers estimate the existence of 10 possible genetic codes possessing the same type and degree of redundancy as the universal genetic code. All of these codes fall within the error-minimization distribution. This finding means that of the 10 possible genetic codes, few, if any, have an error-minimization capacity that approaches the code found universally in nature. *******www.reasons****/biology/biochemical-design/fyi-id-dna-deciphering-design-genetic-code The Capabilities of Chaos and Complexity - David L. Abel - 2009 Excerpt: "A monstrous ravine runs through presumed objective reality. It is the great divide between physicality and formalism. On the one side of this Grand Canyon lies everything that can be explained by the chance and necessity of physicodynamics. On the other side lies those phenomena than can only be explained by formal choice contingency and decision theory—the ability to choose with intent what aspects of ontological being will be preferred, pursued, selected, rearranged, integrated, organized, preserved, and used. Physical dynamics includes spontaneous non linear phenomena, but not our formal applied-science called non linear dynamics(i.e. language,information). *******www.mdpi****/1422-0067/10/1/247/pdf i.e. There are no physical or chemical forces between the nucleotides along the linear axis of DNA (where the information is) that causes the sequence of nucleotides to exist as they do. In fact as far as the foundational laws of the universe are concerned the DNA molecule doesnt even have to exist at all. Signature in the Cell by Stephen C. Meyer *******www.signatureinthecell****/ The Coding Found In DNA Vastly Exceeds Man's Ability To Code - Stephen Meyer - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=HavmzWVt8IU Stephen Meyer - Functional Proteins And Information For Body Plans - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=Ex8Fj8UAxc8 Stephen Meyer is interviewed about the "information problem" in DNA, Signature in the Cell - video *******downloads.cbn****/cbnnewsplayer/cbnplayer.swf?aid=8497 3-D Structure Of Human Genome: Fractal Globule Architecture Packs Two Meters Of DNA Into Each Cell - Oct. 2009 Excerpt: the information density in the nucleus is trillions of times higher than on a computer chip -- while avoiding the knots and tangles that might interfere with the cell's ability to read its own genome. Moreover, the DNA can easily unfold and refold during gene activation, gene repression, and cell replication. *******www.sciencedaily****/releases/2009/10/091008142957.htm DNA Optimized for Photostability Excerpt: These nucleobases maximally absorb UV-radiation at the same wavelengths that are most effectively shielded by ozone. Moreover, the chemical structures of the nucleobases of DNA allow the UV-radiation to be efficiently radiated away after it has been absorbed, restricting the opportunity for damage. *******www.reasons****/dna-soaks-suns-rays The coding system used for living beings is optimal from an engineering standpoint. Werner Gitt, - In The Beginning Was Information - p. 95 Conservation of Information in Computer Search (COI) - William A. Dembski - Robert J. Marks II - Dec. 2009 Excerpt: COI puts to rest the inflated claims for the information generating power of evolutionary simulations such as Avida and ev. *******marksmannet****/RobertMarks/REPRINTS/2009_BernoullisPrinciple.pdf Conservation Of Transcendent Information - 2007 - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=5Hm4lh81r6M Scientific Evidence For God Creating The Universe - 2008 - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=JQhO906v0VM Intelligent Design - The Anthropic Hypothesis *******lettherebelight-77.blogspot****/
8 May 2010
1941
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The “real work” of the beginning of the Cambrian Explosion may in actuality be as short as a two to three million year time frame (Hugh Ross, Jonathan Wells) which is well within what is termed the "geologic resolution time" i.e. The time frame for the main part of the Cambrian Explosion apparently can't be shortened any further due to limitations of our accurately dating this ancient time period more precisely. "The Cambrian Explosion was so short that it is below the resolution of the fossil record. It could have happened overnight. So we don't know the duration of the Cambrian Explosion. We just know that it was very, very, fast." Jonathan Wells - Darwin's Dilemma Quote Darwin's Dilemma Trailer - Excellent Cambrian Explosion Movie Now Available On DVD - Sept. 2009 *******www.illustramedia****/ddinfo.htm Genesis 1:20 Then God said, "Let the waters teem with swarms of living creatures,",,, Investigating Evolution: The Cambrian Explosion Part 1 - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=4DkbmuRhXRY Part 2 - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=iZFM48XIXnk The Cambrian Sea - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=O8UXlcgzcEA The scant "track" evidence for worms in the pre-Cambrian has now been brought into question: Discovery Of Giant Roaming Deep Sea Protist Provides New Perspective On Animal Evolution: Excerpt: This is the first time a single-celled organism has been shown to make such animal-like traces. The finding is significant, because similar fossil grooves and furrows found from the Precambrian era, as early as 1.8 billion years ago, have always been attributed to early evolving multicellular animals. "If our giant protists were alive 600 million years ago and the track was fossilized, a paleontologist unearthing it today would without a shade of doubt attribute it to a kind of large, multicellular, bilaterally symmetrical animal," says Matz, an assistant professor of integrative biology. "We now have to rethink the fossil record." *******www.sciencedaily****/releases/2008/11/081120130531.htm Interestingly, "simple" Jellyfish and Sponges appeared suddenly in the fossil record a few ten million years before the Cambrian Explosion, and have remained virtually unchanged since they first appeared in the fossil record. Moreover, contrary to evolutionary thinking, Jellyfish and Sponges appear to have essential purpose in preparing the ecosystem for the Cambrian Explosion that was to follow. Marine animals cause a stir - July 2009 Excerpt: Kakani Katija and John Dabiri used field measurements of jellyfish swimming in a remote island lake, combined with a new theoretical model, to demonstrate that the contribution of living organisms to ocean mixing via this mechanism is substantial — of the same order of magnitude as winds and tides. (Winds and tides, due to their prevention of stagnation, are known to be essential for life on earth.) *******www.nature****/nature/journal/v460/n7255/edsumm/e090730-08.html Sponges Determine Coral Reef's Nutrient Cycle Excerpt: Sponges, which have worldwide distribution in the oceans, filter water. They take up planktonic particles such as bacteria and excrete inorganic nutrients. In turn, these nutrients can facilitate the growth of marine plants and other organisms. Sponges filter water at a phenomenal rate: if the seawater were to remain stationary, the sponges would have completely pumped it away within five minutes,,,, these organisms play a key role in the marine nutrient cycle due to their incredible capacity to convert enormous quantities of organic plankton into inorganic material (nutrients). *******www.sciencedaily****/releases/2005/09/050917085649.htm Fossils of all types of sponges alive today have been found virtually unchanged in rocks dated from 580 to 523 million years ago. Sponges with photosynthesizing endosymbionts produce up to three times more oxygen than they consume, as well as more organic matter than they consume. (Wikipedia) Barrel and Chimney Sponges Filtering Water - video *******www.youtube****/watch?v=T7E1rq7zHLc My guess is that, as with photosynthetic bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, sponges, and jellyfish, Ediacara biota will ultimately be found to have a essential biogeochemical role in preparing the earth for more advanced life to appear in the Cambrian explosion. Evolution vs. Functional Proteins - Doug Axe - Video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4018222/evolution_vs_functional_proteins_where_did_the_information_come_from_doug_axe_stephen_meyer/ Stephen Meyer - Functional Proteins And Information For Body Plans - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/4050681/stephen_meyer_functional_proteins_and_information_for_body_plans/ Conservation Of Transcendent Information - 2007 - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/3995275/intelligent_design_conservation_of_transcendent_information/ Scientific Evidence For God (Logos) Creating The Universe - 2008 - video *******www.metacafe****/watch/3995300/scientific_evidence_for_god_logos_creating_the_universe/ Intelligent Design - The Anthropic Hypothesis *******lettherebelight-77.blogspot****/
8 Mar 2011
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