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This way of staging takes into account the size of the tumour, whether there are cancer cells in lymph glands (also called lymph nodes) close to the prostate gland, and whether the tumour has spread anywhere else.
Prostate cancer has four basic stages which are
Stage 1 – the cancer is very small and completely inside the prostate gland, which feels normal during a rectal examination
Stage 2 – the cancer is still inside the prostate gland, but is larger and a lump or hard area can be felt during a rectal examination
Stage 3 – the cancer has broken through the covering of the prostate and may have grown into the tubes which carry semen
Stage 4 – the cancer has grown into the bladder or rectum, or has spread to the lymph nodes or another part of the body, such as the bones, liver or lungs
The term "to stage" a cancer means to describe the evident extent of the cancer in the body at the time that the cancer is first diagnosed. The stage of a cancer helps doctors understand the extent of the cancer and plan cancer treatment. Results of the treatment of similar Gleason score prostate cancer found at the same or similar stage can help the doctor and patient to make important decisions about choices of treatment to recommend or to accept.
Cancer staging is first described using what is called a TNM system. The "T" refers to a description of the size or extent of the primary, or original, tumor. "N" describes the presence or absence of, and extent of spread of the cancer to lymph nodes that may be nearby or further from the original tumor. "M" describes the presence or absence of metastases -- usually distant areas elsewhere in the body other than regional (nearby) lymph nodes to which the cancer has spread. Cancers with specific TNM characteristics are then grouped into stages, and the stages are then assigned Roman numerals with the numerals used in increasing order as the extent of the cancer being staged increases or the cancer prognosis worsens. Prognosis is finally reflected by considering the patient's PSA score at presentation as well as their Gleason score in assigning a final stage designation.
The American Joint Commission on Cancer AJCC system for prostate cancer staging is as follows:
T designations refer to the characteristics of the prostate cancer primary tumor.
T1 prostate cancers cannot be seen on imaging tests or felt on examination. They may be found incidentally when surgery is done on the prostate for a problem presumed to be benign, or on needle biopsy for an elevated PSA.
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Prostate cancer usually does not cause symptoms in the beginning stages. By the time symptoms do occur, the disease may have spread beyond the prostate. Symptoms of prostate cancer may include the following: urinary problems, such as not being able to urinate, having a hard time starting or stopping the flow of urine, needing to urinate often, especially at night, weak flow of urine, urine flow that starts and stops, pain or burning during urination, difficulty having an erection, blood in the urine or semen, and/or frequent pain in the lower back, hips, or upper thighs.
The "Prostate Cancer Treatment" report includes a review of possible signs and symptoms (such as weak flow of urine or painful ejactulation); descriptions of the various tests used for diagnosis (including digital rectal exam and prostate-specific antigen test); an explanation of the various stages of prostate cancer (Stages I, II, III, and IV); an overview of treatment options (including watchful waiting, surgery, and radation therapy); and also includes 10 pages of related medical terminology (to help you understand what your medical provider is talking about.
How to Recognize Prostate Cancer Symptoms|metastatic prostate cancer treatment
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men in the United States. The average age at the time of diagnosis is about 66 years old, with about six cases in 10 diagnosed in men aged 65 or older and very few diagnosed before age 40. Prostate cancer can have no symptoms at all and there is no definitive screening protocol for cancer, due to false positives and false negatives among current screening tests. When detected, 90% of cancers are found locally within the prostate and have not spread to other parts of the body, which means that nearly 100% of men at this stage are disease-free after five years. If you are worried about prostate cancer, learn to recognize the symptoms and increase your awareness around testing and the stages of prostate cancer so that you get treatment as quickly as possible.
Visit your doctor. It is advised to seek medical advice if you have any of the symptoms of prostate cancer. There are many other possible diagnoses, such as prostatitis, urinary tract infection
Abiraterone acetate is used for treating a certain type of prostate cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. It is used along with prednisone, a steroid. Abiraterone is a type of hormone therapy. Clinical trials are also using abiraterone for earlier stages of prostate cancer and advanced breast cancer...